# Question

What are the factors that allow a native Spanish-speaking person to understand and read English? A study published in the Bilingual Research Journal (Summer 2006) investigated the relationship of Spanish (first-language) grammatical knowledge to English (second-language) reading. The study involved a sample of n = 55 native Spanish-speaking adults who were students in an English as a second language (ESL) college class. Each student took four standardized exams: Spanish grammar (SG), Spanish reading (SR), English grammar (EG), and English reading (ESLR). Simple linear regression was used to model the ESLR score (y) as a function of each of the other exam scores (x). The results are summarized in the next table (p. 576).

a. At α = .05, is there sufficient evidence to indicate that ESLR score is linearly related to SG score?

Independent variable (x) p-value for testing H0: β1 = 0

SG score ............ .739

SR score............ .012

ER score ............ .022

b. At α = .05, is there sufficient evidence to indicate that ESLR score is linearly related to SR score?

c. At α = .05, is there sufficient evidence to indicate that ESLR score is linearly related to ER score?

a. At α = .05, is there sufficient evidence to indicate that ESLR score is linearly related to SG score?

Independent variable (x) p-value for testing H0: β1 = 0

SG score ............ .739

SR score............ .012

ER score ............ .022

b. At α = .05, is there sufficient evidence to indicate that ESLR score is linearly related to SR score?

c. At α = .05, is there sufficient evidence to indicate that ESLR score is linearly related to ER score?

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