Which of the following is an example of act utilitarian reasoning and which is an example of rule utilitarian reasoning? Explain your answers.
a. If I do not go to the meeting, then others will not go either. If that happens, then there would not be a quorum for the important vote, which would be bad. Thus, I ought to go to the meeting.
b. If doctors generally lied to their patients about their diagnoses, then patients would lose trust in their doctors. Because that would be bad, I should tell this patient the truth.
c. We ought to keep our promises because it is a valuable practice.
d. If I cheat here, I will be more likely to cheat elsewhere. No one would trust me then. So I should not cheat on this test.