Women diagnosed with breast cancer whose tumors have not spread may be faced with a decision between two surgical treatments—mastectomy (removal of the breast) or lumpectomy (only the tumor is removed). In a long-term study of the effectiveness of these two treatments, 701 women with breast cancer were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. One group received mastectomies and the other group received lumpectomies and radiation. Both groups were followed for 20 years after surgery. It was reported that there was no statistically significant difference in the proportion surviving for 20 years for the two treatments (Associated Press, October 17, 2002). What hypotheses do you think the researchers tested in order to reach the given conclusion? Did the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
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