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The table below provides information about hours of sleep.

a. Calculate statistical power for a one-tailed test (a = 0.05, or 5%) aimed at determining if those in the sample sleep fewer hours, on average, than those in the population.

b. Recalculate statistical power with alpha of 0.01, or 1%. Explain why changing alpha affects power. Explain why we should not use a larger alpha to increase power.

c. Without performing any computations, describe how statistical power is affected by performing a two-tailed test for this example. Why are two-tailed tests recommended over one-tailed tests?

d. The easiest way to affect the outcome of a hypothesis test is to increase sample size. Similarly, true results may sometimes be missed because a sufficient sample was not used in the research. Perform the hypothesis test on these data with a sample of 37. Then perform the same hypothesis test but assume that the mean was based on only 4 infants.

e. The easiest way to increase statistical power is to increase sample size. Similarly, statistical power decreases with a smaller sample size. For these data, compute the statistical power of the one-tailed statistical test with alpha of 0.05 when N is 4. How does that value compare to when N was 37?

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