The stagnation temperature on the Apollo vehicle at Mach 36 as it entered the atmosphere was 11,000 K, a much different value than predicted in Problem 8.17 for the case of a calorically perfect gas with a ratio of specific heats equal to 1.4. The difference is due to chemical reactions that occur in air at these high temperatures—dissociation and ionization. The analyses in this book assuming a calorically perfect gas with constant specific heats are not valid for such chemically reacting flows. However, as an engineering approximation, the calorically perfect gas results are sometimes applied with a lower value of the ratio of specific heats, a so-called “effective gamma,” in order to try to simulate the effects of high temperature chemically reacting flows. For the condition stated in this problem, calculate the value of the effective gamma necessary to yield a temperature of 11,000 K at the stagnation point. Assume the freestream temperature is 300 K.

**Data from Problem 8.17:**

When the Apollo command module returned to earth from the moon, it entered the earth’s atmosphere at a Mach number of 36. Using the results from the present chapter for a calorically perfect gas with the ratio of specific heats equal to 1.4, predict the gas temperature at the stagnation point of the Apollo at Mach 36 at an altitude where the freestream temperature is 300 K. Comment on the validity of your answer.

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