Data 4.2 on page 223 describes an experiment to study the effects of smiling on leniency in judging students accused of cheating. Exercise 4.60 on page 250 shows a dotplot, reproduced in Figure 5.19, of a randomization distribution of differences
Data 4.2 on page 223
Can a simple smile have an effect on punishment assigned following an infraction? LeFrance and Hecht conducted a study examining the effect of a smile on the leniency of disciplinary action for wrongdoers. Participants in the experiment took on the role of members of a college disciplinary panel judging students accused of cheating. For each suspect, along with a description of the offense, a picture was provided with either a smile or neutral facial expression. A leniency score was calculated based on the disciplinary decisions made by the participants. The full data can be found in Smiles. The experimenters have prior knowledge that smiling has a positive influence on people, and they are testing to see if the average lenience score is higher for smiling students than it is for students with a neutral facial expression (or, in other words, that smiling students are given more leniency and milder punishments.)Distribution
The word "distribution" has several meanings in the financial world, most of them pertaining to the payment of assets from a fund, account, or individual security to an investor or beneficiary. Retirement account distributions are among the most...
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 D = 0.79 Dff
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