The article “Who Wants Airbags” [Chance (2005 18: 3– 16]

The article €œWho Wants Airbags€ [Chance (2005 18: 3€“ 16] discusses whether air bags should be mandatory equipment in all new automobiles. From National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data, the authors obtained the following information about fatalities and the usage of air bags and seat belts. All passenger cars sold in the United States starting in 1998 are required to have air bags. The NHTSA estimates that air bags had saved 10,000 lives as of January 2004. The authors examined accidents in which there was a harmful event ( personal or property) and from which at least one vehicle was towed. After some screening of the data, they ­obtained the following results. (The authors detail in their article the types of screening of the data that was done.)
The article €œWho Wants Airbags€ [Chance (2005 18: 3€“ 16]

a. Calculate the odds of being killed in a harmful- event car accident for vehicles with and without air bags. Interpret the two odds.
b. Calculate the odds ratio of being killed in a harmful-event car accident with and without air bags. What does this ratio tell you about the importance of having air bags in a vehicle?
c. Is there significant evidence of a difference between vehicles with and without air bags relative to the proportions of persons killed in harmful- event vehicle accidents? Use a = .05.
d. Place a 95% confidence interval on the odds ratio. Interpret this interval.


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