The flux of visible photons reaching Earth from the North

The flux of visible photons reaching Earth from the North Star is about 4 x 103 mm-2 S-I. Of these photons, 30 per cent are absorbed or scattered by the atmosphere and 25 per cent of the surviving photons are scattered by the surface of the cornea of the eye. A further 9 per cent are absorbed inside the cornea. The area of the pupil at night is about 40 mm/ and the response time of the eye is about 0.1 s. Of the photons passing through the pupil, about 43 per cent are absorbed in the ocular medium. How many photons from the North Star are focused on to the retina in 0.1 s? For a continuation of this story, see RW. Rodieck, The first steps in seeing, Sinauer, Sunderland (1998)

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