Donaldson Corporation is a manufacturer of computer accessories It uses
Donaldson Corporation is a manufacturer of computer accessories. It uses absorption costing based on standard costs and reports the following data for 2014:

There are no price spending, or efficiency variances. Actual operating costs equal budgeted operating costs. The production- volume variance is written off to cost of goods sold. For each choice of denominator level, the budgeted production cost per unit is also the cost per unit of beginning inventory.

1. What is the production- volume variance in 2014 when the denominator level is?
(a) Theoretical capacity,
(b) Practical capacity,
(c) Normal capacity utilization?
2. Prepare absorption costing–based income statements for Donaldson Corporation using theoretical capacity, practical capacity, and normal capacity utilization as the denominator levels.
3. Why is the operating income under normal capacity utilization lower than the other two scenarios?
4. Reconcile the difference in operating income based on theoretical capacity and practical capacity with the difference in fixed manufacturing overhead included ininventory.
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