# Question

A firebox is at 750 K, and the ambient temperature is 300 K. The efficiency of a Carnot engine doing 150 J of work as it transports energy between these constant-temperature baths is 60.0%. The Carnot engine must take in energy 150 J/0.600 = 250 J from the hot reservoir and must put out 100 J of energy by heat into the environment. To follow Carnot’s reasoning, suppose that some other heat engine S could have efficiency 70.0%. (a) Find the energy input and wasted energy output of engine S as it does 150 J of work.

(b) Let engine S operate as in part (a) and run the Carnot engine in reverse. Find the total energy the firebox puts out as both engines operate together, and the total energy transferred to the environment. Show that the Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics is violated.

(c) Find the energy input and work output of engine S as it puts out exhaust energy of 100 J.

(d) Let engine S operate as in (c) and contribute 150 J of its work output to running the Carnot engine in reverse. Find the total energy the firebox puts out as both engines operate together, the total work output, and the total energy transferred to the environment. Show that the Kelvin–Planck statement of the second law is violated. Thus our assumption about the efficiency of engine S must be false.

(e) Let the engines operate together through one cycle as in part (d). Find the change in entropy of the Universe. Show that the entropy statement of the second law is violated.

(b) Let engine S operate as in part (a) and run the Carnot engine in reverse. Find the total energy the firebox puts out as both engines operate together, and the total energy transferred to the environment. Show that the Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics is violated.

(c) Find the energy input and work output of engine S as it puts out exhaust energy of 100 J.

(d) Let engine S operate as in (c) and contribute 150 J of its work output to running the Carnot engine in reverse. Find the total energy the firebox puts out as both engines operate together, the total work output, and the total energy transferred to the environment. Show that the Kelvin–Planck statement of the second law is violated. Thus our assumption about the efficiency of engine S must be false.

(e) Let the engines operate together through one cycle as in part (d). Find the change in entropy of the Universe. Show that the entropy statement of the second law is violated.

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