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# Question & Answer:

• A constant-volume gas thermometer is calibrated in dry ice (that is, carbon dioxide in the solid state, which has a temperature of - 80.0°C) and in boiling ethyl alcohol (78.0°C). The two pressures are 0.900 atm and 1.635 atm. (a) What Celsius value of absolute zero does the calibration yield? What is the pressure at (b) The freezing point of water and (c) The boiling point of water?
• In a constant-volume gas thermometer, the pressure at 20.0°C is 0.980 atm. (a) What is the pressure at 45.0°C? (b) What is the temperature if the pressure is 0.500 atm?
• Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of - 195.81°C at atmospheric pressure. Express this temperature (a) In degrees Fahrenheit and (b) In kelvins.
• Convert the following to equivalent temperatures on the Celsius and Kelvin scales: (a) The normal human body temperature, 98.6°F; (b) The air temperature on a cold day, -5.00°F.
• The temperature difference between the inside and the outside of an automobile engine is 450°C. Express this temperature difference on (a) The Fahrenheit scale and (b) The Kelvin scale.
• On a Strange temperature scale, the freezing point of water is -15.0°S and the boiling point is + 60.0°S. Develop a linear conversion equation between this temperature scale and the Celsius scale.
• The melting point of gold is 1 064°C, and the boiling point is 2 660°C. (a) Express these temperatures in kelvins. (b) Compute the difference between these temperatures in Celsius degrees and kelvins.
• The New River Gorge bridge in West Virginia is a steel arch bridge 518 m in length. How much does the total length of the roadway decking change between temperature extremes of - 20.0°C and 35.0°C? The result indicates the size of the expansion joints that must be built into the structure
• A copper telephone wire has essentially no sag between poles 35.0 m apart on a winter day when the temperature is - 20.0°C. How much longer is the wire on a summer day when TC # 35.0°C?
• The concrete sections of a certain superhighway are designed to have a length of 25.0 m. The sections are poured and cured at 10.0°C. What minimum spacing should the engineer leave between the sections to eliminate buckling if the concrete is to reach a temperature of 50.0°C?
• A pair of eyeglass frames is made of epoxy plastic. At room temperature (20.0°C), the frames have circular lens holes 2.20 cm in radius. To what temperature must the frames be heated if lenses 2.21 cm in radius are to be inserted in them? The average coefficient of linear expansion for epoxy is 1.30 X 10-4 (°C)-1.
• Each year thousands of children are badly burned by hot tap water. Figure P19.12 shows a cross-sectional view of an anti scalding faucet attachment designed to prevent such accidents. Within the device, a spring made of material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion controls a movable plunger. When the water temperature rises above a preset safe value, the expansion of the spring causes the plunger to shut off the water flow. If the initial length L of the unstressed spring is 2.40 cm and its coefficient of linear expansion is 22.0 X 10-6 (°C)-1, determine the increase in length of the spring when the water temperature rises by 30.0°C. (You will find the increase in length to be small. For this reason actual devices have a more complicated mechanical design, to provide a greater variation in valve opening for the temperature change anticipated.)
• The active element of a certain laser is made of a glass rod 30.0 cm long by 1.50 cm in diameter. If the temperature of the rod increases by 65.0°C, what is the increase in (a) Its length, (b) Its diameter, and (c) Its volume? Assume that the average coefficient of linear expansion of the glass is 9.00 X 10-6 (°C)-1.
• Inside the wall of a house, an L-shaped section of hot-water pipe consists of a straight horizontal piece 28.0 cm long, an elbow, and a straight vertical piece 134 cm long (Figure P19.14). A stud and a second-story floorboard hold stationary the ends of this section of copper pipe. Find the magnitude and direction of the displacement of the pipe elbow when the water flow is turned on, raising the temperature of the pipe from 18.0°C to 46.5°C.
• A brass ring of diameter 10.00 cm at 20.0°C is heated and slipped over an aluminum rod of diameter 10.01 cm at 20.0°C. Assuming the average coefficients of linear expansion are constant, (a) To what temperature must this combination be cooled to separate them? Is this attainable? (b) What If? What if the aluminum rod were 10.02 cm in diameter?
• A square hole 8.00 cm along each side is cut in a sheet of copper. (a) Calculate the change in the area of this hole if the temperature of the sheet is increased by 50.0 K. (b) Does this change represent an increase or a decrease in the area enclosed by the hole?
• The average coefficient of volume expansion for carbon tetrachloride is 5.81 X 10-4 (°C)-1. If a 50.0-gal steel container is filled completely with carbon tetrachloride when the temperature is 10.0°C, how much will spill over when the temperature rises to 30.0°C?
• At 20.0°C, an aluminum ring has an inner diameter of 5.000 0 cm and a brass rod has a diameter of 5.050 0 cm. (a) If only the ring is heated, what temperature must it reach so that it will just slip over the rod? (b) What If? If both are heated together, what temperature must they both reach so that the ring just slips over the rod? Would this latter process work?
• A volumetric flask made of Pyrex is calibrated at 20.0°C. It is filled to the 100-mL mark with 35.0°C acetone. (a) What is the volume of the acetone when it cools to 20.0°C? (b) How significant is the change in volume of the flask?
• A concrete walk is poured on a day when the temperature is 20.0°C in such a way that the ends are unable to move. (a) What is the stress in the cement on a hot day of 50.0°C? (b) Does the concrete fracture? Take Young’s modulus for concrete to be 7.00 X 109 N/m2 and the compressive strength to be 2.00 X 109 N/m2.