“People who often attend cultural activities, such as movies, sports events and concerts, are more likely than their less cultured cousins to survive the next eight to nine years, even when education and income are taken into account, according to a survey by the University of Umea in Sweden” (American Health, April 1997, p. 20).
a. Can this claim be tested by conducting a randomized experiment? Explain.
b. On the basis of the study that was conducted, can we conclude that attending cultural events causes people to be likely to live longer? Explain.
c. The article continued, “No one’s sure how Mel Gibson and Mozart help health, but the activities may enhance immunity or coping skills.” Comment on the validity of this statement.
d. The article notes that education and income were taken into account. Give two examples of other factors about the people surveyed that you think should also have been taken into account.