# Question: Royal Essentials Inc began operations on January 1 2008 The company produces

Royal Essentials, Inc. began operations on January 1, 2008. The company produces a hand and body lotion in an eight-ounce bottle called Eternal Beauty. The lotion is sold wholesale in 12-bottle cases for \$80 per case. There is a selling commission of \$16 per case. The January direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead costs are as follows:
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During September of the current year, the controller was asked to perform variance analyses for August. The January operating data provided the standard prices, rates, times, and quantities per case. There were 1,200 actual cases produced during August, which was 50 more cases than planned at the beginning of the month. Actual data for August were as follows:
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The prices of the materials were different than standard due to fluctuations in market prices.
Specifically, the prices of the cream base and bottles were below the standard price, while the price of natural oils was above the standard price. The standard quantity of materials used per case was an ideal standard. The Mixing Department used a higher grade labor classification during the month, thus causing the actual labor rate to exceed standard. The
Filling Department used a lower grade labor classification during the month, thus causing the actual labor rate to be less than standard.

Instructions
1. Determine and interpret the direct materials price and quantity variances for the three materials.
2. Determine and interpret the direct labor rate and time variances for the two departments.
3. Determine and interpret the factory overhead controllable variance.
4. Determine and interpret the factory overhead volume variance.
5. Why are the standard direct labor and direct materials costs in the calculations for parts A of (1) and (2) based on the actual 1,200-case production volume rather than the planned 1,150 cases of production used in the budgets for parts B (1) and(2)?
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