The device shown in Figure Q22.11, called a thermoelectric converter, uses a series of semiconductor cells to convert internal energy to electric potential energy, which we will study in Chapter 25. In the photograph at the left, both legs of the device are at the same temperature, and no electric potential energy is produced. However, when one leg is at a higher temperature than the other, as in the photograph on the right, electric potential energy is produced as the device extracts energy from the hot reservoir and drives a small electric motor.
(a) Why does the temperature differential produce electric potential energy in this demonstration?
(b) In what sense does this intriguing experiment demonstrate the second law of thermodynamics?

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