# Question

The file S02_18.xlsx contains daily values of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index from 1970 to 2009. It also contains percentage changes in the index from each day to the next.

a. Create a histogram of the percentage changes and describe its shape.

b. Check the percentage of these percentage changes that are more than k standard deviations from the mean for k = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Are these approximately what the empirical rules indicate or are there “fat” tails? Do you think this has any real implications for the financial markets?

a. Create a histogram of the percentage changes and describe its shape.

b. Check the percentage of these percentage changes that are more than k standard deviations from the mean for k = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Are these approximately what the empirical rules indicate or are there “fat” tails? Do you think this has any real implications for the financial markets?

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