Two staff analysts for the city of Bridgmont, Pennsylvania, disagree regarding the effects of seniority and continuing education on promotions in the city government. One of them believes that seniority leads to promotions, while the other argues that the critical variable is continuing education (i.e., returning to school to obtain a second degree while employed by the government). In order to test their ideas, for the current employees of the Bridgmont city government, they obtain data on their level of seniority (low: five years or less with the city government; high: more than five years), continuing education (no—did not return to school for a second degree; yes—did return), and promotions (no—have not received promotion since with city government; yes—have received promotion). These data are cross-tabulated below. Analyze the data, and resolve the disagreement between the two staff analysts.
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