Question: An advertisement for Claritin a drug for seasonal nasal allergies

An advertisement for Claritin, a drug for seasonal nasal allergies, made this claim: “Clear relief without drowsiness. In studies, the incidence of drowsiness was similar to placebo” (Time, 6 February 1995, p. 43). The advertisement also reported that 8% of the 1926 Claritin takers and 6% of the 2545 placebo takers reported drowsiness as a side effect. A one-sided test of whether a higher proportion of Claritin takers than placebo takers would experience drowsiness in the population results in a p-value of about 0.005.
a. Can you conclude that the incidence of drowsiness for the Claritin takers is statistically significantly higher than that for the placebo takers?
b. Does the answer to part (a) contradict the statement in the advertisement that the “incidence of drowsiness was similar to placebo”? Explain.

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