Horizontal analysis refers to changes in financial statement numbers and

Horizontal analysis refers to changes in financial statement numbers and ratios across two or more years. Vertical analysis refers to financial statement amounts expressed each year as proportions of a base, such as sales for the income statement accounts, and total assets for the balance sheet accounts.

Exhibit EP 7-4–1 contains the Retail Company’s prior year (audited) and current year (unaudited) financial statements, along with amounts and percentages of change from year to year (horizontal analysis) and common-size percentages (vertical analysis).

Exhibit EP 7-4–2 contains selected financial ratios based on these financial statements. Analysis of these data may enable auditors to discern relationships that raise questions about misleading financial statements.


Study the data in Exhibits EP 7-4–1 and EP 7-4–2. Write a memo identifying and explaining potential problem areas where misstatements in the current year financial statements might exist.

Additional information about Retail Company is as follows:

• The new bank loan, obtained on July 1 of the current year, requires maintenance of a 2:1 current ratio.

• Principal of $100,000 plus interest on the 10% long-term note obtained several years ago in the original amount of $800,000 is due each January 1.

• The company has never paid dividends on its common shares and has no plans for a dividend.

EP 7-4–1

Horizontal analysis refers to changes in financial statement numbers and


Financial Statements
Financial statements are the standardized formats to present the financial information related to a business or an organization for its users. Financial statements contain the historical information as well as current period’s financial...
Balance Sheet
Balance sheet is a statement of the financial position of a business that list all the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity and shareholder’s equity at a particular point of time. A balance sheet is also called as a “statement of financial...
Financial Ratios
The term is enough to curl one's hair, conjuring up those complex problems we encountered in high school math that left many of us babbling and frustrated. But when it comes to investing, that need not be the case. In fact, there are ratios that,...


  • Access to 1 Million+ Textbook solutions
  • Ask any question from 24/7 available


Get help from Auditing Tutors
Ask questions directly from Qualified Online Auditing Tutors .
Best for online homework instance.