A rectangular bar is cut from an AISI 1018 cold-drawn steel flat. The bar is 60 mm wide by
10 mm thick and has a 12-mm hole drilled through the center as depicted in Table A–15–1. The bar is concentrically loaded in push-pull fatigue by axial forces Fa , uniformly distributed across the width. Using a design factor of nd = 1.8, estimate the largest force Fa that can be applied ignoring column action.