# Refer to the Conservation Ecology (Dec. 2003) study of the causes of forest fragmentation, presented in Exercise 2.166 (p. 97).

## Question:

Refer to the Conservation Ecology (Dec. 2003) study of the causes of forest fragmentation, presented in Exercise 2.166 (p. 97). Recall that the researchers used advanced high-resolution satellite imagery to develop fragmentation indexes for each forest. A 3 Ã— 3 grid was superimposed over an aerial photo of the forest, and each square (pixel) of the grid was classified as forest (F), as earmarked for anthropogenic land use (A), or as natural land cover (N). An example of one such grid is shown here. The edges of the grid (where an "edge" is an imaginary line that separates any two adjacent pixels) are classified as F-A, F-N, A-A, A-N, N-N, or F-F edges.

a. Note that there are 12 edges inside the grid. Classify each edge as F-A, F-N, A-A, A-N, N-N, or F-F.

b. The researchers calculated the fragmentation index by considering only the F-edges in the grid. Count the number of F-edges. (These edges represent the sample space for the experiment.)

c. If an F-edge is selected at random, find the probability that it is an F-A edge. (This probability is proportional to the anthropogenic fragmentation index calculated by the researchers.)

d. If an F-edge is selected at random, find the probability that it is an F-N edge. (This probability is proportional to the natural fragmentation index calculated by the researchers.)

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