Relevant Costing, Cost-Based Pricing, Cost Behavior, and Net Pre

Relevant Costing, Cost-Based Pricing, Cost Behavior, and Net Present Value Analysis for NoFat

Relevant Costing, Cost-Based Pricing, Cost Behavior, and Net Pre

The purpose of this integrated exercise is to demonstrate how a special sales-relevant decision analysis relies on knowledge of cost behavior (including variable, fixed, and batch costs) and how the adoption of a long-term time horizon can affect the final decision. Special Sales Offer Relevant Analysis NoFat manufactures one product, olestra, and sells it to large potato chip manufacturers as the key ingredient in nonfat snack foods, including Ruffles, Lays, Doritos, and Tostitos brand products. 1 For each of the past three years, sales of olestra have been far less than the expected annual volume of 125,000 pounds. Therefore, the company has ended each year with significant unused capacity. Due to a short shelf life, NoFat must sell every pound of olestra that it produces each year. As a result, NoFat's controller, Allyson Ashley, has decided to seek out potential special sales offers from other companies. One company, Patterson Union (PU)'a toxic waste cleanup company'offered to buy 10,000 pounds of olestra from NoFat during December for a price of $2.20 per pound. PU discovered through its research that olestra has proven to be very effective in cleaning up toxic waste locations designated as Superfund Sites by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 Allyson was excited, noting that ‘‘This is another way to use our expensive olestra plant!'' The annual costs incurred by NoFat to produce and sell 100,000 pounds of olestra are as follows:
Variable costs per pound:
Direct materials ............$1.00
Variable manufacturing overhead .....$0.75
Sales commissions ...........$0.50
Direct manufacturing labor .........$0.25
Total fixed costs:
Advertising ...............$3,000
Customer hotline service .........$4,000
Machine set-ups ............ $40,000
Plant machinery lease ........... $12,000
In addition, Allyson met with several of NoFat's key production managers and discovered the following information:
The special order could be produced without incurring any additional marketing or customer service costs.
NoFat owns the aging plant facility that it uses to manufacture olestra.

NoFat incurs costs to set up and clean its machines for each production run, or batch, of olestra that it produces. The total set-up costs shown in the previous table represent the production of 20 batches during the year.
NoFat leases its plant machinery. The lease agreement is negotiated and signed on the first day of each year. NoFat currently leases enough machinery to produce 125,000 pounds of olestra.
PU requires that an independent quality team inspects any facility from which it makes purchases.
The terms of the special sales offer would require NoFat to bear the $1,000 cost of the inspection team.

1. Conduct a relevant analysis of the special sales offer by calculating:
a. The relevant revenues associated with the special sales offer
b. The relevant costs associated with the special sales offer
c. The relevant profit associated with the special sales offer
2. Based solely on financial factors, explain why NoFat should accept or reject PU's special sales offer.
3. Describe at least one qualitative factor that NoFat should consider, in addition to the financial factors, in making its final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of the special sales offer.
Cost-Based Pricing
Assume for this question that NoFat rejected PU's special sales offer because the $2.20 price suggested by PU was too low. In response to the rejection, PU asked NoFat to determine the price at which it would be willing to accept the special sales offer. For its regular sales, NoFat sets prices by marking up variable costs by 10 percent.
4. If Allyson decides to use NoFat's 10 percent mark-up pricing method to set the price for PU's special sales offer,
a. Calculate the price that NoFat would charge PU for each pound of olestra.
b. Calculate the relevant profit that NoFat would earn if it set the special sales price by using its mark-up pricing method.
c. Explain why NoFat should accept or reject the special sales offer if it uses its mark-up pricing method to set the special sales price.
Incorporating a Long-Term Horizon into the Decision Analysis
Assume for this question that Allyson's relevant analysis reveals that NoFat would earn a positive relevant profit of $10,000 from the special sale (i.e., the special sales alternative). However, after conducting this traditional, short-term relevant analysis, Allyson wonders whether it might be more profitable over the long-term to downsize the company by reducing its manufacturing capacity (i.e., its plant machinery and plant facility). She is aware that downsizing requires a multiyear time horizon because companies usually cannot increase or decrease fixed plant assets every year. Therefore, Allyson has decided to use a five-year time horizon in her long-term decision analysis. She has identified the following information regarding capacity downsizing (i.e., the downsizing alternative):
1) The plant facility consists of several buildings. If it chooses to downsize its capacity, NoFat can immediately sell one of the buildings to an adjacent business for $30,000.
2) If it chooses to downsize its capacity, NoFat's annual lease cost for plant machinery will decrease to $9,000. Therefore, Allyson must choose between these two alternatives: Accept the special sales offer each year and earn a $10,000 relevant profit for each of the next five years or reject the special sales offer and downsize as described in (1) and (2).
5. Assume that NoFat pays for all costs with cash. Also, assume a 10-percent discount rate, a five-year time horizon, and that all cash flows occur at the end of the year. Using an NPV approach to discount future cash flows to present value,
a. Calculate the NPV of accepting the special sale with the assumed positive relevant profit of $10,000 per year (i.e., the special sales alternative).
b. Calculate the NPV of downsizing capacity as previously described (i.e., the downsizing alternative).
c. Based on the NPV of parts a and b, identify and explain which of these two alternatives is best for NoFat to pursue in thelong-term.

Net Present Value
What is NPV? The net present value is an important tool for capital budgeting decision to assess that an investment in a project is worthwhile or not? The net present value of a project is calculated before taking up the investment decision at...


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