- A crystalline solid consists of atoms stacked up in a repeating lattice structure. Consider a crystal as shown in Figure P1.1a. The atoms reside at the corners of cubes of side L = 0.200nm. One
- Use information on the endpapers of this book to calculate the average density of the Earth. Where does the value fit among those listed in Tables 1.5 and 14.1? Look up the density of a typical
- The standard kilogram is a platinum–iridium cylinder 39.0 mm in height and 39.0 mm in diameter. What is the density of the material?
- A major motor company displays a die-cast model of its first automobile, made from 9.35 kg of iron. To celebrate its hundredth year in business, a worker will recast the model in gold from the
- What mass of a material with density P is required to make a hollow spherical shell having inner radius r 1 and outer radius r 2?
- Two spheres are cut from a certain uniform rock. One has radius 4.50 cm. The mass of the other is five times greater. Find its radius.
- Calculate the mass of an atom of (a) helium, (b) iron, and (c) lead. Give your answers in grams. The atomic masses of these atoms are 4.00 u, 55.9 u, and 207 u, respectively.
- The paragraph preceding Example 1.1 in the text mentions that the atomic mass of aluminum is 27.0u = 27.0 x 1.66 x 10-27 kg. Example 1.1 says that 27.0u g of aluminum contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms. (a)
- On your wedding day your lover gives you a gold ring of mass 3.80 g. Fifty years later its mass is 3.35 g. On the average, how many atoms were abraded from the ring during each second of your
- A small cube of iron is observed under a microscope. The edge of the cube is 5.00 x 10-6 cm long find (a) The mass of the cube and (b) The number of iron atoms in the cube. The atomic mass of iron
- A structural I beam is made of steel. A view of its cross-section and its dimensions are shown in Figure P1.11. The density of the steel is 7.56 x 103 kg/m3 (a) What is the mass of a section 1.50 m
- A child at the beach digs a hole in the sand and uses a pail to fill it with water having a mass of 1.20 kg. The mass of one molecule of water is 18.0 u. (a) Find the number of water molecules in
- The position of a particle moving under uniform acceleration is some function of time and the acceleration. Suppose we write this position s = kamt n, where k is a dimensionless constant. Show by
- Figure P1.14 shows a frustum of a cone. Of the following mensuration (geometrical) expressions, this describes (a) The total circumference of the flat circular faces (b) The volume (c) The area
- Which of the following equations are dimensionally correct? (a) vf = vi' + ax (b) y = (2 m) cos (kx), where k = 2 m-1.
- (a) A fundamental law of motion states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force exerted on the object and inversely proportional to its mass. If the
- Newton’s law of universal gravitation is represented by F = GMm / r2 Here F is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by one small object on another, M and m are the masses of the
- A worker is to paint the walls of a square room 8.00 ft high and 12.0 ft along each side. What surface area in square meters must she cover?
- Suppose your hair grows at the rate 1/32 in. per day. Find the rate at which it grows in nanometers per second. Because the distance between atoms in a molecule is on the order of 0.1nm, your answer
- The volume of a wallet is 8.50 in3 Convert this value to m3, Using the definition 1 in. = 2.54 cm
- A rectangular building lot is 100 ft by 150 ft. determine the area of this lot in m2.
- An auditorium measures 40.0 m X 20.0 m X 12.0 m. The density of air is 1.20 kg/m3. What are? (a) The volume of the room in cubic feet and (b) The weight of air in the room in pounds?
- Assume that it takes 7.00 minutes to fill a 30.0-gal gasoline tank. (a) Calculate the rate at which the tank is filled in gallons per second. (b) Calculate the rate at which the tank is filled in
- Find the height or length of these natural wonders in kilometers, meters and centimeters. (a) The longest cave system in the world is the Mammoth Cave system in central Kentucky. It has a mapped
- A solid piece of lead has a mass of 23.94 g and a volume of 2.10 cm3. From these data, calculate the density of lead in SI units (kg/m3)
- A section of land has an area of 1 square mile and contains 640 acres. Determine the number of square meters in 1 acre.
- An ore loader moves 1 200 tons/h from a mine to the surface. Convert this rate to lb/s, using 1 ton = 2 000 lb.
- (a) Find a conversion factor to convert from miles per hour to kilometers per hour. (b) In the past, a federal law mandated that highway speed limits would be 55 mi/h. Use the conversion factor of
- AT the time of this book’s printing, the U.S. national debt is about $6 trillion. (a) If payments were made at the rate of $1 000 per second, how many years would it take to pay off the debt,
- The mass of the Sun is 1.99 x 1030 kg, and the mass of an atom of hydrogen, of which the Sun is mostly composed, is 1.67 X 10-27 kg. How many atoms are in the Sun?
- One gallon of paint (volume =3.78 X 10-3 m3) covers an area of 25.0 m2. What is the thickness of the paint on the wall?
- A pyramid has a height of 481 ft and its base covers an area of 13.0 acres (Fig. P1.32). If the volume of a pyramid is given by the expression V = ⅓ Bh, where B is the area of the base and h is
- The pyramid described in Problem 32 contains approximately 2 million stone blocks that average 2.50 tons each. Find the weight of this pyramid in pounds.
- Assuming that 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water at an average depth of 2.3 mi, estimate the mass of the water on the Earth in kilograms.
- A hydrogen atom has a diameter of approximately 1.06 x 10-10, as defined by the diameter of the spherical electron cloud around the nucleus. The hydrogen nucleus has a diameter of approximately 2.40
- The nearest stars to the Sun are in the Alpha Centauri multiple-star system, about 4.0 x 1013 km away. If the Sun, with a diameter of 1.4 x 109 m, and Alpha Centauri a are both represented by cherry
- The diameter of our disk-shaped galaxy, the Milky Way, is about 1.0 x 105 light-years (Ly). The distance to Messier 31, which is Andromeda, the spiral galaxy nearest to the Milky Way, is about 2.0
- The mean radius of the Earth is 6.37 x 106 m, and that of the Moon is 1.74 x 108 cm. From these data calculate (a) The ratio of the Earth’s surface area to that of the Moon and (b) The ratio of
- One cubic meter (1.00 m3) of aluminum has a mass of 2.70 x 103 kg, and 1.00 m3 of iron has a mass of 7.86 x 103 kg. Find the radius of a solid aluminum sphere that will balance a solid iron sphere of
- Let & Al represent the density of aluminum and PFe that of iron. Find the radius of a solid aluminum sphere that balances a solid iron sphere of radius r Fe on an equal-arm balance.
- Estimate the number of Ping-Pong balls that would fit into a typical-size room (without being crushed). In your solution state the quantities you measure or estimate and the values you take for them.
- An automobile tire is rated to last for 50 000 miles. To an order of magnitude, through how many revolutions will it turn? In your solution state the quantities you measure or estimate and the values
- Grass grows densely everywhere on a quarter-acre plot of land. What is the order of magnitude of the number of blades of grass on this plot? Explain your reasoning. Note that 1 acre = 43 560 ft2.
- Approximately how many raindrops fall on a one-acre lot during a one-inch rainfall? Explain your reasoning.
- Compute the order of magnitude of the mass of a bathtub half full of water. Compute the order of magnitude of the mass of a bathtub half full of pennies. In your solution list the quantities you take
- Soft drinks are commonly sold in aluminum containers. To an order of magnitude, how many such containers are thrown away or recycled each year by U.S. consumers?
- To an order of magnitude, how many piano tuners are in New York City? The physicist Enrico Fermi was famous for asking questions like this on oral Ph.D. qualifying examinations. His own facility in
- A rectangular plate has a length of (21.3 ± 0.2) cm and a width of (9.8 ± 0.1) cm. Calculate the area of the plate, including its uncertainty.
- The radius of a circle is measured to be (10.5 ± 0.2) m. Calculate the (a) Area and (b) Circumference of the circle and give the uncertainty in each value.
- How many significant figures are in the following numbers? (a) 78.9 ± 0.2 (d) 0.005 3. (c) 2.46 X 10-6 (b) 3.788 X 109
- The radius of a solid sphere is measured to be (6.50 ± 0.20) cm, and its mass is measured to be (1.85 ± 0.02) kg. Determine the density of the sphere in kilograms per cubic meter and the
- Carry out the following arithmetic operations: (a) The sum of the measured values 756, 37.2, 0.83, and 2.5; (b) The product 0.003 2 X 356.3; (c) The product 5.620 X π.
- The tropical year, the time from vernal equinox to the next vernal equinox, is the basis for our calendar. It contains 365.242199 days. Find the number of seconds in a tropical year.
- A farmer measures the distance around a rectangular field. The length of the long sides of the rectangle is found to be 38.44 m, and the length of the short sides is found to be 19.5 m. What is the
- A sidewalk is to be constructed around a swimming pool that measures (10.0 ± 0.1) m by (17.0 ± 0.1) m. If the sidewalk is to measure (1.00 ± 0.01) m wide by (9.0 ± 0.1) cm thick, what volume of
- In a situation where data are known to three significant digits, we write 6.379 m = 6.38 m and 6.374 m = 6.37m. When a number ends in 5, we arbitrarily choose to write 6.375 m = 6.38m. We could
- For many electronic applications, such as in computer chips, it is desirable to make components as small as possible to keep the temperature of the components low and to increase the speed of the
- The basic function of the carburetor of an automobile is to “atomize” the gasoline and mix it with air to promote rapid combustion. As an example, assume that 30.0 cm3 of gasoline is atomized
- The consumption of natural gas by a company satisfies the empirical equation V = 1.50t + 0.008 00t 2, where V is the volume in millions of cubic feet and t the time in months. Express this equation
- In physics it is important to use mathematical approximations. Demonstrate that for small angles (
- Collectible coins are sometimes plated with gold to enhance their beauty and value. Consider a commemorative quarter-dollar advertised for sale at $4.98. It has a diameter of 24.1mm, a thickness of
- There are nearly π X 107 s in one year. Find the percentage error in this approximation, where “percentage error’’ is defined as Percentage error = | assumed value – true value | x
- Assume that an object covers an area A and has a uniform height h. If its cross-sectional area is uniform over its height, then its volume is given by V = Ah. (a) Show that V = Ah is dimensionally
- A child loves to watch as you fill a transparent plastic bottle with shampoo. Every horizontal cross-section is a circle, but the diameters of the circles have different values, so that the bottle is
- One cubic centimeter of water has a mass of 1.00 x 10-3 kg. (a) Determine the mass of 1.00 m3 of water. (b) Biological substances are 98% water. Assume that they have the same density as water to
- Assume there are 100 million passenger cars in the United States and that the average fuel consumption is 20 mi/gal of Gasoline. If the average distance traveled by each car is 10 000 mi/yr, how
- A creature moves at a speed of 5.00 furlongs per fortnight (not a very common unit of speed). Given that 1 furlong = 220 yards and 1 fortnight = 14 days, determine the speed of the creature in m/s.
- The distance from the Sun to the nearest star is about 4 x 1016 m. The Milky Way galaxy is roughly a disk of diameter ~1021 m and thickness ~1019. Find the order of magnitude of the number of stars
- The position of a pine wood derby car was observed at various times; the results are summarized in the following table. Find the average velocity of the car for (a) The first second, (b) The last 3
- (a) Sand dunes in a desert move over time as sand is swept up the windward side to settle in the lee side. Such “walking” dunes have been known to walk 20 feet in a year and can travel as much as
- The position versus time for a certain particle moving along the x axis is shown in Figure P2.3. Find the average velocity in the time intervals (a) 0 to 2 s, (b) 0 to 4 s, (c) 2 s to 4 s,
- A particle moves according to the equation x = 10 t 2 where x is in meters and t is in seconds (a) Find the average velocity for the time interval from 2.00 to 3.00 s. (b) Find the average
- A person walks first at a constant speed of 5.00 m/s along a straight line from point A to point B and then back along the line from B to A at a constant speed of 3.00 m/s. What is (a) Her
- The position of a particle moving along the x axis varies in time according to the expression x = 3t2, where x is in meters and t is in seconds. Evaluate its position (a) At t = 3.00 s and (b) At
- A position-time graph for a particle moving along the x axis is shown in Figure P2.7. (a) Find the average velocity in the time interval t = 1.50 s to t = 4.00 s (b) Determine the instantaneous
- (a) Use the data in Problem 1 to construct a smooth graph of position versus time. (b) By constructing tangents to the x (t) curve, find the instantaneous velocity of the car at several instants.
- Find the instantaneous velocity of the particle described in Figure P2.3 at the following times: (a) t = 1.0 s, (b) t = 3.0 s (c) t = 4.5 s, and (d) t = 7.5 s
- A hare and a tortoise compete in a race over a course 1.00 km long. The tortoise crawls straight and steadily at its maximum speed of 0.200 m/s toward the finish line. The hare runs at its maximum
- The data in the following table represent measurements of the masses and dimensions of solid cylinders of aluminum, copper, brass, tin, and iron. Use these data to calculate the densities of these
- A 50.0-g superb all traveling at 25.0 m/s bounces off a brick wall and rebounds at 22.0 m/s. A high-speed camera records this event. If the ball is in contact with the wall for 3.50 ms, what is the
- A particle starts from rest and accelerates as shown in Figure P2.12. Determine (a) The particle’s speed at t = 10.0 s and at t = 20.0 s, and (b) The distance traveled in the first 20.0 s.
- Secretariat won the Kentucky Derby with times for successive quarter-mile segments of 25.2 s, 24.0 s, 23.8, and 23.0 s. (a) Find his average speed during each quarter-mile segment. (b) Assuming
- A velocity–time graph for an object moving along the x axis is shown in Figure P2.14. ] (a) Plot a graph of the acceleration versus time. (b) Determine the average acceleration of the object in
- A particle moves along the x axis according to the equation x = 2.00 + 3.00t - 1.00t 2, where x is in meters and t is in seconds. At t = 3.00 s, find (a) The position of the particle, (b) Its
- An object moves along the x axis according to the equation x (t) = (3.00t2 - 2.00t + 3.00) m. Determine (a) The average speed between t = 2.00 s and t = 3.00 s, (b) The instantaneous speed at t =
- Figure P2.17 shows a graph of vx versus t for the motion of a motorcyclist as he starts from rest and moves along the road in a straight line. (a) Find the average acceleration for the time
- Draw motion diagrams for (a) An object moving to the right at constant speed, (b) An object moving to the right and speeding up at a constant rate, (c) An object moving to the right and slowing
- Jules Verne in 1865 suggested sending people to the Moon by firing a space capsule from 220-m-long cannon with a launch speed of 10.97 km/s. What would have been the unrealistically large
- A truck covers 40.0 m in 8.50 s while smoothly slowing down to a final speed of 2.80 m/s. (a) Find its original speed. (b) Find its acceleration.
- An object moving with uniform acceleration has a velocity of 12.0 cm/s in the positive x direction when its x coordinate is 3.00 cm. If its x coordinate 2.00 s later is -5.00 cm, what is its
- A 745i BMW car can brake to a stop in a distance of 121 ft. from a speed of 60.0 mi/h. To brake to a stop from a speed of 80.0 mi/h requires a stopping distance of 211 ft. What is the average
- A speedboat moving at 30.0 m/s approaches a no-wake buoy marker 100m ahead. The pilot slows the boat with a constant acceleration of - 3.50 m/s2 by reducing the throttle. (a) How long does it take
- Figure P2.24 represents part of the performance data of a car owned by a proud physics student. (a) Calculate from the graph the total distance traveled. (b) What distance does the car travel
- A particle moves along the x axis. Its position is given by the equation x = 2 x 3t - 4t2 with x in meters and t in seconds. Determine (a) Its position when it changes direction and (b) Its
- In the Daytona 500 auto race, a Ford Thunderbird and a Mercedes Benz are moving side by side down a straightaway at 71.5 m/s. The driver of the Thunderbird realizes he must make a pit stop, and he
- A jet plane lands with a speed of 100 m/s and can accelerate at a maximum rate of - 5.00 m/s2 as it comes to rest. (a) From the instant the plane touches the runway, what is the minimum time
- A car is approaching a hill at 30.0 m/s when its engine suddenly fails just at the bottom of the hill. The car moves with a constant acceleration of -2.00 m/s2 while coasting up the hill. (a)
- Help! One of our equations is missing! We describe constant acceleration motion with the variables and parameters vxi, vxf, ax, t, and xf - xi. Of the equations in Table 2.2, the first does not
- Help! One of our equations is missing! We describe constant acceleration motion with the variables and parameters vxi, vxf, ax, t, and xf - xi. Of the equations in Table 2.2, the first does not