# If a system has a center as its critical point, what happens if you replace the matrix A by A = A + kI with any real number k 0 (representing measurement errors in the diagonal entries)?

Chapter 4, P R O B L E M S E T 4 . 4 #16

If a system has a center as its critical point, what happens if you replace the matrix A by A^{∼} = A + kI with any real number k ≠ 0 (representing measurement errors in the diagonal entries)?

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