Angelica just received the good news: She was assigned as the project manager for a project that


Angelica just received the good news: She was assigned as the project manager for a project that her company won as part of competitive bidding. Whenever a request for proposal (RFP) comes into Angelica's company, a committee composed mainly of senior managers reviews the RFP. If the decision is made to bid on the job, the RFP is turned over to the Proposal Department. Part of the Proposal Department is an estimating group that is responsible for estimating all work. If the estimating group has no previous history concerning some of the deliverables or work packages and is unsure about the time and cost for the work, the estimating team will then ask the functional managers for assistance with estimating. Project managers like Angelica do not often participate in the bidding process. Usually, their first knowledge about the project comes after the contract is awarded to their company and they are assigned as the project manager. Some project managers are highly optimistic and trust the estimates that were submitted in the bid implicitly unless, of course, a significant span of time has elapsed between the date of submittal of the proposal and the final contract award date. Angelica, however, is somewhat pessimistic. She believes that accepting the estimates as they were submitted in the proposal is like playing Russian roulette. As such, Angelica prefers to review the estimates.
One of the most critical work packages in the project was estimated at twelve weeks using one grade 7 employee full-time. Angelica had performed this task on previous projects and it required one person full-time for 14 weeks. Angelica asked the estimating group how they arrived at this estimate. The estimating group responded that they used the three-point estimate where the optimistic time was four weeks, the most likely time was 13 weeks, and the pessimistic time was 16 weeks.
Angelica believed that the three-point estimate was way off of the mark. The only way that this work package could ever be completed in four weeks would be for a very small project nowhere near the complexity of Angelica's project. Therefore, the estimating group was not considering any complexity factors when using the three-point estimate. Had the estimating group used the triangular distribution where each of the three estimates had an equal likelihood of occurrence, the final estimate would have been 13 weeks. This was closer to the 14 weeks that Angelica thought the work package would take. While a difference of a week seems small, it could have a serious impact on Angelica's project and incur penalties for late delivery.
Angelica was now still confused and decided to talk to Michael, the employee who was assigned to do this task. Angelica had worked with Michael on previous projects. Michael was a grade 9 employee and considered to be an expert in this work package. As part of the discussions with Angelica, Michael made the following comments: I have seen estimating databases that include this type of work package and they all estimate the work package at about 14 weeks. I do not understand why our estimating group prefers to use the three-point estimate.

“Does the typical database account for project complexity when considering the estimates?” asked Angelica. Michael responded:
Some databases have techniques for considering complexity, but mostly they just assume an average complexity level. When complexity is important, as it is in our project, analogy estimating would be better. Using analogy estimating and comparing the complexity of the work package on this project to the similar works packages I have completed, I would say that 16–17 weeks is closer to reality, and let's hope I do not get removed from the project to put out a fire somewhere else in the company. That would be terrible. It is impossible for me to get it done in 12 weeks. And adding more people to this work package will not shorten the schedule. It may even make it worse. Angelica then asked Michael one more question: 

Michael, you are a grade 9 and considered the subject matter expert. If a grade 7 had been assigned, as the estimating group had said, how long would it have taken the grade 7 to do the job?
“Probably about 20 weeks or so,” responded Michael.

1. How many different estimating techniques were discussed in the case?
2. If each estimate is different, how does a project manager decide that one estimate is better than another?
3. If you were the project manager, which estimate would you use?

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