1. With reference to TCP/IP layered architecture, explain


With reference to TCP/IP layered architecture, explain the purpose of encapsulation and de-capsulation including a diagram to show the process. In your explanation, provide examples of information specific to each layer that is used in this process.


When IP is used as a connection-oriented protocol, a forwarding decision is not made based on the destination IP address of the received datagrams. Name a networking model/framework/solution for connection-oriented forwarding of IP datagrams and explain how forwarding decisions are made. [Note that in connection-less IP forwarding, the destination IP address is used to make the forwarding decisions.]


You are using your web browser to load your university home page identified by the URL https://www.cqu.edu.au (without any full stop at the end of the URL). Briefly explain how the DNS protocol assists your browser in locating the website. Further, state the benefits of using DNS caching (or caches) at the local DNS servers.


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