The pill to deliver a particular drug has a solid spherical inner core of pure drug...
Fantastic news! We've Found the answer you've been seeking!
Question:
Transcribed Image Text:
The pill to deliver a particular drug has a solid spherical inner core of pure drug D and is surrounded by a spherical outer coating of A that makes the pill palat able and helps to control the drug release. The outer coating and the drug dis solve at different rates in the stomach due to their difference in solubilities. Let CAS = concentration of coating in the stomach in mg/cm³, CDs = concentration of drug in the stomach in mg/cm³, and CDB = concentration of drug in the body in mg/kg. Three different pill formulations are available: Pill 1 Diameter of A = 5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 2 Diameter of A = 4 mm, Diameter of D= 3 mm Diameter of A = 3.5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 3 Additional Information and Data Amount of drug in inner core of each pill = 20 mg Density of inner and outer layers = 1414.7 mg/cm³ Solubility of outer pill layer at stomach conditions = SA = 1.0 mg/cm³ Solubility of inner drug core at stomach conditions = SD = 0.4 mg/cm³ Volume of fluid in stomach = V = 1.2 liters Residence time in stomach = t = V/vo= 4 hours, where uo is the volumetric flow rate Typical body weight W = 75 kg Sherwood number = Nsh Dp KLDAB Effective Diffusivities of A and D in stomach DA = DD = 0.6 cm²/min = 2 (see Problem 10.3 for details) A person takes all three pills at the same time. Assume that the stomach is well mixed and that the pills remain in the stomach while they are dissolving. (a) Plot CAS and CDs as a function of time for up to 12 hours after the pills are taken. (b) If the drug is absorbed into the body (from solution in the stomach into the blood stream) by an effective mass transfer rate of 10×CDs in mg/ min, plot CAS and CDs under these conditions. (c) If the body metabolizes the drug with an effective firstorder reaction rate of 1.0×CDB in mg/kg.min, plot CDB in the body under the condi tions of (b). (d) Under the conditions of (c), what is the estimated time that CDB is greater than 2.0 x 103 mg/kg, which is the minimum effective concen tration level for the drug? (e) Please suggest a more effective layering of the three pills with the drug placed only in the center to increase the time for the effective level con centration of 2.0 x 103 mg/kg under the same conditions. The pill to deliver a particular drug has a solid spherical inner core of pure drug D and is surrounded by a spherical outer coating of A that makes the pill palat able and helps to control the drug release. The outer coating and the drug dis solve at different rates in the stomach due to their difference in solubilities. Let CAS = concentration of coating in the stomach in mg/cm³, Cps = concentration of drug in the stomach in mg/cm³, and CDB = concentration of drug in the body in mg/kg. Three different pill formulations are available: Pill 1 Diameter of A = 5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 2 Diameter of A = 4 mm, Diameter of D= 3 mm Diameter of A = 3.5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 3 Additional Information and Data Amount of drug in inner core of each pill = 20 mg Density of inner and outer layers = 1414.7 mg/cm³ Solubility of outer pill layer at stomach conditions = SA = 1.0 mg/cm³ Solubility of inner drug core at stomach conditions = SD = 0.4 mg/cm³ Volume of fluid in stomach = V = 1.2 liters Residence time in stomach = t = V/vo= 4 hours, where uo is the volumetric flow rate Typical body weight W = 75 kg Sherwood number = Nsh Dp KLDAB Effective Diffusivities of A and D in stomach DA DD = 0.6 cm²/min = 2 (see Problem 10.3 for details) A person takes all three pills at the same time. Assume that the stomach is well mixed and that the pills remain in the stomach while they are dissolving. (a) Plot CAS and CDs as a function of time for up to 12 hours after the pills are taken. (b) If the drug is absorbed into the body (from solution in the stomach into the blood stream) by an effective mass transfer rate of 10×CDs in mg/ min, plot CAS and CDs under these conditions. (c) If the body metabolizes the drug with an effective firstorder reaction rate of 1.0×CDB in mg/kg.min, plot CDB in the body under the condi tions of (b). (d) Under the conditions of (c), what is the estimated time that CDB is greater than 2.0 x 103 mg/kg, which is the minimum effective concen tration level for the drug? (e) Please suggest a more effective layering of the three pills with the drug placed only in the center to increase the time for the effective level con centration of 2.0 x 103 mg/kg under the same conditions. The pill to deliver a particular drug has a solid spherical inner core of pure drug D and is surrounded by a spherical outer coating of A that makes the pill palat able and helps to control the drug release. The outer coating and the drug dis solve at different rates in the stomach due to their difference in solubilities. Let CAS = concentration of coating in the stomach in mg/cm³, CDs = concentration of drug in the stomach in mg/cm³, and CDB = concentration of drug in the body in mg/kg. Three different pill formulations are available: Pill 1 Diameter of A = 5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 2 Diameter of A = 4 mm, Diameter of D= 3 mm Diameter of A = 3.5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 3 Additional Information and Data Amount of drug in inner core of each pill = 20 mg Density of inner and outer layers = 1414.7 mg/cm³ Solubility of outer pill layer at stomach conditions = SA = 1.0 mg/cm³ Solubility of inner drug core at stomach conditions = SD = 0.4 mg/cm³ Volume of fluid in stomach = V = 1.2 liters Residence time in stomach = t = V/vo= 4 hours, where uo is the volumetric flow rate Typical body weight W = 75 kg Sherwood number = Nsh Dp KLDAB Effective Diffusivities of A and D in stomach DA = DD = 0.6 cm²/min = 2 (see Problem 10.3 for details) A person takes all three pills at the same time. Assume that the stomach is well mixed and that the pills remain in the stomach while they are dissolving. (a) Plot CAS and CDs as a function of time for up to 12 hours after the pills are taken. (b) If the drug is absorbed into the body (from solution in the stomach into the blood stream) by an effective mass transfer rate of 10×CDs in mg/ min, plot CAS and CDs under these conditions. (c) If the body metabolizes the drug with an effective firstorder reaction rate of 1.0×CDB in mg/kg.min, plot CDB in the body under the condi tions of (b). (d) Under the conditions of (c), what is the estimated time that CDB is greater than 2.0 x 103 mg/kg, which is the minimum effective concen tration level for the drug? (e) Please suggest a more effective layering of the three pills with the drug placed only in the center to increase the time for the effective level con centration of 2.0 x 103 mg/kg under the same conditions. The pill to deliver a particular drug has a solid spherical inner core of pure drug D and is surrounded by a spherical outer coating of A that makes the pill palat able and helps to control the drug release. The outer coating and the drug dis solve at different rates in the stomach due to their difference in solubilities. Let CAS = concentration of coating in the stomach in mg/cm³, Cps = concentration of drug in the stomach in mg/cm³, and CDB = concentration of drug in the body in mg/kg. Three different pill formulations are available: Pill 1 Diameter of A = 5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 2 Diameter of A = 4 mm, Diameter of D= 3 mm Diameter of A = 3.5 mm, Diameter of D = 3 mm Pill 3 Additional Information and Data Amount of drug in inner core of each pill = 20 mg Density of inner and outer layers = 1414.7 mg/cm³ Solubility of outer pill layer at stomach conditions = SA = 1.0 mg/cm³ Solubility of inner drug core at stomach conditions = SD = 0.4 mg/cm³ Volume of fluid in stomach = V = 1.2 liters Residence time in stomach = t = V/vo= 4 hours, where uo is the volumetric flow rate Typical body weight W = 75 kg Sherwood number = Nsh Dp KLDAB Effective Diffusivities of A and D in stomach DA DD = 0.6 cm²/min = 2 (see Problem 10.3 for details) A person takes all three pills at the same time. Assume that the stomach is well mixed and that the pills remain in the stomach while they are dissolving. (a) Plot CAS and CDs as a function of time for up to 12 hours after the pills are taken. (b) If the drug is absorbed into the body (from solution in the stomach into the blood stream) by an effective mass transfer rate of 10×CDs in mg/ min, plot CAS and CDs under these conditions. (c) If the body metabolizes the drug with an effective firstorder reaction rate of 1.0×CDB in mg/kg.min, plot CDB in the body under the condi tions of (b). (d) Under the conditions of (c), what is the estimated time that CDB is greater than 2.0 x 103 mg/kg, which is the minimum effective concen tration level for the drug? (e) Please suggest a more effective layering of the three pills with the drug placed only in the center to increase the time for the effective level con centration of 2.0 x 103 mg/kg under the same conditions.
Expert Answer:
Answer rating: 100% (QA)
To solve this problem we can use the principles of mass transfer and diffusion Lets break down each part of the problem and solve them step by step a Plotting C AS and C DS as a function of time for u... View the full answer
Related Book For
Posted Date:
Students also viewed these accounting questions

An antibiotic drug is contained in a solid inner core and is surrounded by an outer coating that makes it palatable. The outer coating and the drug are dissolved at different rates in the stomach,...

Planning is one of the most important management functions in any business. A front office managers first step in planning should involve determine the departments goals. Planning also includes...

An airplane has a ground velocity of 4 0 0 km / h , [ N 6 0 W ] . The plane is affected by a 9 0 km / h wind which is coming from the direction [ N 8 0 E ] . Determine the magnitude and the direction...

Construct a frequency distribution and histogram for the motor fuel octane data from Exercise 614. Use eight bins.

Chapter 1 explained four non routine cognitive skills: abstract reasoning, systems thinking, collaboration, and experimentation. Explain how implementing the new Procurement process at CBI will...

Walt Disney reports the following information for its two Parks and Resorts divisions. Assume Walt Disney uses a balanced scorecard and sets a target of 85% occupancy in its resorts. Using Exhibit...

Blueline Tours, Inc., operates tours throughout the United States. A study has indicated that some of the tours are not profitable, and consideration is being given to dropping these tours to improve...

11. A 65 kg student is walking on a slackline, a stretch of between two trees. The line stretches and has a noticeable sag as shown below 20 What is the tension in the line? 20

Surkis Company acquires equipment at a cost of $42,000 on January 3, 2017. Management estimates the equipment will have a residual value of $6,000 at the end of its fouryear useful life. Assume the...

Outline policies and legislation relevant to performance management in Bounce Fitness.

A naked put writer who sold atthemoney options would like the underlying security to... a) fall in value. b) fall in value or stay at the same price. c) rise in value. d) rise in value or stay at...

Which of the following statements is true until after the year 2017? A) all of the above are false b) all corporations with income less than 10,000 are exempt from the AMT c) the alternative minimum...

The SUA PMI company has doubts about when it should accumulate its income, which is why I ask you to help them solve this question, justifying with articles from the LISR: They paid you 100,000.00...

Cules son los mecanismos fundamentales de Jidoka? 1 punto A. Poka Yoke, Andon y paradas automticas. B. Metodologa Kaizen, deteccin eficaz. C. Kanban, TPM y Celdas de manufactura. D. Generar nuevas...

The statements below are the ways to reduce risk, EXCEPT: Question 12Answer a. Investing for short term b. Investing for the long term c. Hedging your bets d. Diversifying your investments,

Suppose that you carried out a small survey in your neighborhood (four to five families). Your presumed interview data revealed that almost 50% of the people got their first vaccination shot while...

A line l passes through the points with coordinates (0, 5) and (6, 7). a. Find the gradient of the line. b. Find an equation of the line in the form ax + by + c = 0.

a. Example 141: Mass Transfer of Oxygen to a Burning Carbon Particle Wolfram and Python 1. Vary each slider to find the parameter to which the flux W Ar is most sensitive. 2. What happens when the...

Describe how would your reactor volume and number of reactors change if you only needed 50% conversion to produce the 200 million pounds per year required?

A new energy efficiency saving device, the Turbo Retro Thermo Encabulator has been previewed in the following YouTube video (https://www.youtube.com/watch v=RXJKdh1KZ0w). Write a twosentence...

A big challenge for the GM managers at the auto plant making the Chevrolet Sonic will be maintaining positive employee morale. They will be managing a workforce of 1,550 employees that is composed of...

Assume you are an employee in a situation similar to the one described in this case, a situation in which you believe your union has not represented your interests fairly and made a deal with...

A British Workplace Behaviour Survey explored prevalence of a wide range of behaviors that comprise ill treatment in the UK workplace. Ill treatment included 47 percent reported unreasonable...
Study smarter with the SolutionInn App