# You have just graduated from the MBA program of a large university, and one of your favorite

## Question:

You have just graduated from the MBA program of a large university, and one of your favorite courses was "Today's Entrepreneurs." In fact, you enjoyed it so much you have decided you want to "be your own boss." While you were in the master's program, your grandfather died and left you $1 million to do with as you please. You are not an inventor, and you do not have a trade skill that you can market; however, you have decided that you would like to purchase at least one established franchise in the fast-foods area, maybe two (if profitable). The problem is that you have never been one to stay with any project for too long, so you figure that your time frame is 3 years. After 3 years you will go on to something else. You have narrowed your selection down to two choices:

(1) Franchise L, Lisa's Soups, Salads, & Stuff, and

(2) Franchise S, Sam's Fabulous Fried Chicken. The net cash flows shown below include the price you would receive for selling the franchise in Year 3 and the forecast of how each franchise will do over the 3-year period. Franchise L's cash flows will start off slowly but will increase rather quickly as people become more health-conscious, while Franchise S's cash flows will start off high but will trail off as other chicken competitors enter the marketplace and as people become more health-conscious and avoid fried foods. Franchise L serves breakfast and lunch whereas Franchise S serves only dinner, so it is possible for you to invest in both franchises. You see these franchises as perfect complements to one another: You could attract both the lunch and dinner crowds and the health-conscious and not-so-health-conscious crowds without the franchises directly competing against one another. Here are the net cash flows (in thousands of dollars):

expected net Cash Flows

year Franchise L Franchise S

0..................-$100...............-$100

1.......................10....................70

2.......................60....................50

3.......................80....................20

Depreciation, salvage values, net working capital requirements, and tax effects are all included in these cash flows.

You also have made subjective risk assessments of each franchise and concluded that both franchises have risk characteristics that require a return of 10%. You must now determine whether one or both of the franchises should be accepted.

a. What is capital budgeting?

b. What is the difference between independent and mutually exclusive projects?

c. (1) Define the term net present value (NPV). What is each franchise's NPV?

(2) What is the rationale behind the NPV method? According to NPV, which franchise or franchises should be accepted if they are independent? Mutually exclusive?

(3) Would the NPVs change if the cost of capital changed?

d. (1) Define the term internal rate of return (IRR). What is each franchise's IRR?

(2) How is the IRR on a project related to the YTM on a bond?

(3) What is the logic behind the IRR method? According to IRR, which franchises should be accepted if they are independent? Mutually exclusive?

(4) Would the franchises' IRRs change if the cost of capital changed?

e. (1) Draw NPV profiles for Franchises L and S. At what discount rate do the profiles cross?

(2) Look at your NPV profile graph without referring to the actual NPVs and IRRs. Which franchise or franchises should be accepted if they are independent? Mutually exclusive? Explain. Are your answers correct at any cost of capital less than 23.6%?

f. (1) What is the underlying cause of ranking conflicts between NPV and IRR?

(2) What is the reinvestment rate assumption, and how does it affect the NPV-versus-IRR conflict?

(3) Which method is the best? Why?

g. (1) Define the term modified IRR (MIRR). Find the MIRRs for Franchises L and S.

(2) What are the MIRR's advantages and disadvantages vis-à-vis the regular IRR? What are the

MIRR's advantages and disadvantages vis-à-vis the NPV?

h. What does the profitability index (PI) measure? What are the PIs of Franchises S and L?

i. (1) What is the payback period? Find the paybacks for Franchises L and S.

(2) What is the rationale for the payback method? According to the payback criterion, which franchise or franchises should be accepted if the firm's maximum acceptable payback is 2 years and if Franchises L and S are independent? If they are mutually exclusive?

(3) What is the difference between the regular and discounted payback periods?

(4) What is the main disadvantage of discounted payback? Is the payback method of any real usefulness in capital budgeting decisions?

j. As a separate project (Project P), you are considering sponsorship of a pavilion at the upcoming

World's Fair. The pavilion would cost $800,000, and it is expected to result in $5 million of incremental cash inflows during its single year of operation. However, it would then take another year, and $5 million of costs, to demolish the site and return it to its original condition. Thus, Project P's expected net cash flows look like this (in millions of dollars):

year net Cash Flows

0..........................-$0.8

1.............................5.0

2............................25.0

The project is estimated to be of average risk, so its cost of capital is 10%.

(1) What are normal and nonnormal cash flows?

(2) What is Project P's NPV? What is its IRR? Its MIRR?

(3) Draw Project P's NPV profile. Does Project P have normal or nonnormal cash flows? Should this project be accepted?

k. In an unrelated analysis, you have the opportunity to choose between the following two mutually exclusive projects:

expected net Cash Flows

year project s project l

0............-$100,000................-$100,000

1.................60,000.....................33,500

2.................60,000.....................33,500

3.....................-......................33,500

4.....................-......................33,500

The projects provide a necessary service, so whichever one is selected is expected to be repeated into the foreseeable future. Both projects have a 10% cost of capital.

(1) What is each project's initial NPV without replication?

(2) What is each project's equivalent annual annuity?

(3) Now apply the replacement chain approach to determine the projects' extended NPVs. Which project should be chosen?

(4) Now assume that the cost to replicate Project S in 2 years will increase to $105,000 because of inflationary pressures. How should the analysis be handled now, and which project should be chosen?

l. You are also considering another project that has a physical life of 3 years; that is, the machinery will be totally worn out after 3 years. However, if the project were terminated prior to the end of 3 years, the machinery would have a positive salvage value. Here are the project's estimated cash flows:

Using the 10% cost of capital, what is the project's NPV if it is operated for the full 3 years? Would the NPV change if the company planned to terminate the project at the end of Year 2? At the end of Year 1 ? What is the project's optimal (economic) life?

m. After examining all the potential projects, you discover that there are many more projects this year with positive NPVs than in a normal year. What two problems might this extra-large capital budget cause?

Net Present ValueWhat is NPV? The net present value is an important tool for capital budgeting decision to assess that an investment in a project is worthwhile or not? The net present value of a project is calculated before taking up the investment decision at... Internal Rate of Return

Internal Rate of Return of IRR is a capital budgeting tool that is used to assess the viability of an investment opportunity. IRR is the true rate of return that a project is capable of generating. It is a metric that tells you about the investment... Salvage Value

Salvage value is the estimated book value of an asset after depreciation is complete, based on what a company expects to receive in exchange for the asset at the end of its useful life. As such, an asset’s estimated salvage value is an important... Capital Budgeting

Capital budgeting is a practice or method of analyzing investment decisions in capital expenditure, which is incurred at a point of time but benefits are yielded in future usually after one year or more, and incurred to obtain or improve the... Cost Of Capital

Cost of capital refers to the opportunity cost of making a specific investment . Cost of capital (COC) is the rate of return that a firm must earn on its project investments to maintain its market value and attract funds. COC is the required rate of... Discount Rate

Depending upon the context, the discount rate has two different definitions and usages. First, the discount rate refers to the interest rate charged to the commercial banks and other financial institutions for the loans they take from the Federal...

## Step by Step Answer:

**Related Book For**

## Intermediate Financial Management

**ISBN:** 978-1111530266

11th edition

**Authors:** Eugene F. Brigham, Phillip R. Daves