A cryogenic fluid flows through a tube 20 mm in

A cryogenic fluid flows through a tube 20 mm in diameter, the outer surface of which is diffuse and gray with an emissivity of 0.02 and temperature of 77 K. This tube is concentric with a larger tube of 50-mm diameter, the inner surface of which is diffuse and gray with an emissivity of 0.05 and temperature of 300 K. The space between the surfaces is evacuated. Determine the heat gain by the cryogenic fluid per unit length of the inner tube. If a thin-walled radiation shield that is diffuse and gray with an emissivity of 0.02 (both sides) is inserted midway between the inner and outer surfaces, calculate the change (percentage) in heat gain per unit length of the inner tube.

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