Answer true or false to the following statements: 1. Hypothetical reasoning is useful when the evidence by itself does not
Answer “true” or “false” to the following statements:
1. Hypothetical reasoning is useful when the evidence by itself does not provide the solution to the problem.
2. Hypotheses are derived directly from the evidence.
3. Hypotheses serve the purpose of directing the search for additional evidence.
4. If the implications of a hypothesis are true, then we may conclude that the hypothesis is true.
5. If an implication of a hypothesis is false, then we may conclude that the hypothesis is false, at least in part.
6. In the episode pertaining to the discovery of radium, all of the hypotheses turned out to be true.
7. In the Neptune episode, Adams and Leverrier deserve the credit for working out the implications of the hypothesis. 13
8. Torricelli’s hypothesis was consistent with the hypothesis that nature abhors a vacuum.
9. In Pasteur’s day, the theory of spontaneous generation held that life was produced by the direct action of oxygen on organic nutrients.
10. The hypotheses relating to the discoveries of radium and Neptune may be classified as empirical hypotheses.
11. Torricelli’s and Pasteur’s hypotheses may be classified as theoretical hypotheses.
12. Theoretical hypotheses concern how something should be conceptualized.
13. The problem with the distinction between empirical and theoretical hypotheses is that observation is dependent on theory.
14. The adequacy of a hypothesis has to do with how well the ideas or terms in the hypothesis are rationally interconnected.
15. The coherence of a hypothesis has to do with how well the hypothesis fits the facts.
16. If a hypothesis is not externally consistent, then it must be discarded.
17. A hypothesis is fruitful to the extent that it suggests new ideas for future analysis and confirmation.
18. If a theory is incoherent, it is deficient in rationality.
19. The theoretical interpretations of light, electricity, and magnetism during the first part of the nineteenth century illustrate a condition of inadequacy.
20. If a hypothesis gives rise to contradictory implications, it is incoherent.
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