Consider flow from a reservoir through a horizontal pipe of length L and diameter D that penetrates

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Consider flow from a reservoir through a horizontal pipe of length L and diameter D that penetrates into the side wall at a vertical distance H from the free surface. The flow rate through an actual pipe with a reentrant section (KL = 0.8) is considerably less than the flow rate through the hole calculated assuming “frictionless” flow and thus zero loss. Obtain a relation for the “equivalent diameter” of the reentrant pipe for use in relations for frictionless flow through a hole and determine its value for a pipe friction factor, length, and diameter of 0.018, 10 m, and 0.04 m, respectively. Assume the friction factor of the pipe to remain constant and the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor to be negligible.

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