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What is meant by a census?

How does a population differ from a sample?

Name three areas where probability is used.

Why is information obtained from samples used more often than information obtained from populations?

What is meant by a biased sample?

Because of the current economy, 49% of 18- to 34- yearolds have taken a job to pay the bills.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

In 2025, the world population is predicted to be 8 billion people.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

In a weight loss study using teenagers at Boston University, 52% of the group said that they lost weight and kept it off by counting calories.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

Based on a sample of 2739 respondents, it is estimated that pet owners spent a total of 14 billion dollars on veterinarian care for their pets.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

A recent article stated that over 38 million U.S. adults binge-drink alcohol.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that for a specific school year, 7% of children in kindergartens in the state of Oregon had nonmedical waivers for vaccinations.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

A study conducted by a research network found that people with fewer than 12 years of education had lower life expectancies than those with more years of education.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

A survey of 1507 smartphone users showed that 38% of them purchased insurance at the same time as they purchased their phones.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

Forty-four percent of the people in the United States have type O blood.

Determine whether descriptive or inferential statistics were used.

Explain the difference between qualitative variables and quantitative variables.

Why are continuous variables rounded when they are used in statistical studies?

Name and define the four types of measurement levels used in statistics.

Sizes of soft drinks sold by a fast-food restaurant (small, medium, and large)

Determine whether the data are qualitative or quantitative.

Pizza sizes (small, medium, and large)

Determine whether the data are qualitative or quantitative.

Determine whether the data are qualitative or quantitative.

Cholesterol counts for individuals

Determine whether the data are qualitative or quantitative.

Microwave wattage

Number of degrees awarded by a college each year for the last 10 years

Determine whether the data are qualitative or quantitative.

Determine whether the data are qualitative or quantitative.

Ratings of teachers

Number of phone calls received by a 911 call center each day

Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous.

Systolic blood pressure readings

Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous.

Weights of the suitcases of airline passengers on a specific flight

Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous.

Votes received by mayoral candidates in a city election

Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous.

Number of students in the mathematics classes during the fall semester at your school for a particular school year

Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous.

Temperatures at a seashore resort

Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous.

Give the boundaries of following value.

24 feet

Give the boundaries of following value.

6.3 millimeters

Give the boundaries of following value.

143 miles

Give the boundaries of following value.

19.63 tons

Give the boundaries of following value.

200.7 miles

Give the boundaries of following value.

19 quarts

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.Telep

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Telephone numbers

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Leap years: . . . 2016, 2020, 2024, . . .

Distances communication satellites in orbit are from Earth

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio level measurement.

Scores on a statistical final exam

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Rating of cooked ribs at a rib cook-off

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Blood types—O, A, B, AB

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Online spending in dollars

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Horsepower of automobile engines

Classify following as nominal-level, ordinal-level, interval-level, or ratio-level measurement.

Name five ways that data can be collected.

What is meant by sampling error and nonsampling error?

Why are random numbers used in sampling, and how are random numbers generated?

Time magazine reported that 83% of people with household earnings over $200,000 have a bachelor’s degree.

Define a population that may have been used and explain how the sample might have been selected.

Time magazine reported that 25% of the world’s prisoners and prisons are in the United States.

Define a population that may have been used and explain how the sample might have been selected.

A researcher found that the average size of a household in the United States was 2.54 people.

Define a population that may have been used and explain how the sample might have been selected.

Adults aged 19–50 need 1000 milligrams of calcium per day.

Define a population that may have been used and explain how the sample might have been selected.

Taking statins raises the risk of developing diabetes.

Define a population that may have been used and explain how the sample might have been selected.

The average January 2012 temperature in Boston was 34.2°F. This was 5.2° higher than the normal January average temperature.

Define a population that may have been used and explain how the sample might have been selected.

To check the accuracy of a machine filling coffee cups, every fifth cup is selected, and the number of ounces of coffee is measured.

Identify the sampling method that was used.

To determine how long people exercise, a researcher interviews 5 people selected from a yoga class, 5 people selected from a weight-lifting class, 5 people selected from an aerobics class, and 5 people from swimming classes.

Identify the sampling method that was used.

In a large school district, a researcher numbers all the full-time teachers and then randomly selects 30 teachers to be interviewed.

Identify the sampling method that was used.

In a medical research study, a researcher selects a hospital and interviews all the patients that day.

Identify the sampling method that was used.

For 15 minutes, all customers entering a selected Wal-Mart store on a specific day are asked how many miles from the store they live.

Identify the sampling method that was used.

Ten counties in Pennsylvania are randomly selected to determine the average county real estate tax that the residents pay.

Identify the sampling method that was used.

Name and define the three types of observational studies.

List some advantages and disadvantages of an observational study.

List some advantages and disadvantages of an experimental study.

What is the difference between an experimental study and a quasi-experimental study?

What is the difference between independent variables and dependent variables?

Why are a treatment group and a control group used in a statistical study?

Explain the Hawthorne effect.

Define the placebo effect in a statistical study.

What is meant by blinding and double-blinding?

Why do researchers use randomization in statistical studies?

What is the difference between a completely randomized design and a matched-pair design?

Why is replication used in statistical studies?

A survey was taken to see how many times in a month a person encountered a panhandler on the street.

Determine whether an observational study or an experimental study was used.

A study using college students was conducted to see if the percentage of males who pay for a date was equal to the percentage of females who pay for a date.

Determine whether an observational study or an experimental study was used.

A study was done on two groups of overweight individuals. Group 1 was placed on a healthy, moderate diet. Group 2 was not given any diet instructions. After 1 month, the members were asked how many times they engaged in binge eating. The results of the two groups were compared.

Determine whether an observational study or an experimental study was used.

Two groups of students were randomly selected. The students in Group 1 were enrolled in the general studies program. Group 2 students were enrolled in a specific major program (i.e., business, engineering, social work, criminal justice, etc.). At the end of the first year of study, the grade point averages of the two groups were compared.

Determine whether an observational study or an experimental study was used.

According to the British Journal of Sports Medicine, a regular 30-minute workout could slash your risk of catching a cold by 43%.

Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable.

The Journal of Behavioral Medicine reported that sharing a hug and holding hands can limit the physical effects of stress such as soaring heart rate and elevated blood pressure.

Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable.

A study was conducted to determine whether when a restaurant server drew a happy face on the check, that would increase the amount of the tip.

Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable.

A study was conducted to determine if the marital status of an individual had any effect on the cause of death of the individual.

Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable.

Psychology Today magazine reports that the more intelligent a person is (based on IQ), the more willing the person is to make a cooperative choice rather than a selfish one.

Suggest some confounding variables that the researcher might want to consider when doing a study.

The New England Journal of Medicine reported that when poor women move to better neighborhoods, they lower the risk of developing obesity and diabetes.

Suggest some confounding variables that the researcher might want to consider when doing a study.

A leading journal reported that people who have a more flexible work schedule are more satisfied with their jobs.

Suggest some confounding variables that the researcher might want to consider when doing a study.

York University in Toronto, Canada, stated that people who had suffered from fibromyalgia were able to reduce their pain by participating in twice-weekly yoga sessions.

Suggest some confounding variables that the researcher might want to consider when doing a study.

Our product will give you the perfect body.

Give a reason why the statement made might be misleading.

Here is the whole truth about back pain.

Give a reason why the statement made might be misleading.

Our pain medicine will give you 24 hours of pain relief.

Give a reason why the statement made might be misleading.

By reading this book, you will increase your IQ by 20 points.

Give a reason why the statement made might be misleading.

Eating 21 grams of fiber may help you to lose weight.

Give a reason why the statement made might be misleading.

List the steps you should perform when conducting a statistical study.

According to a pilot study of 20 people conducted at the University of Minnesota, daily doses of a compound called arabinogalactan over a period of 6 months resulted in a significant increase in the beneficial lactobacillus species of bacteria. Why can’t it be concluded that the compound is beneficial for the majority of people?

Comment on the following statement, taken from a magazine advertisement: “In a recent clinical study, Brand ABC (actual brand will not be named) was proved to be 1950% better than creatine!”

In an ad for women, the following statement was made: “For every 100 women, 91 have taken the road less traveled.”

Comment on this statement.

In many ads for weight loss products, under the product claims and in small print, the following statement is made: “These results are not typical.” What does this say about the product being advertised?

In an ad for moisturizing lotion, the following claim is made: “. . . it’s the number 1 dermatologist-recommended brand.” What is misleading about this claim?

An ad for an exercise product stated: “Using this product will burn 74% more calories.” What is misleading about this statement?

“Vitamin E is a proven antioxidant and may help in fighting cancer and heart disease.” Is there anything ambiguous about this claim? Explain.

“Just 1 capsule of Brand X can provide 24 hours of acid control.” (Actual brand will not be named.) What needs to be more clearly defined in this statement?

“. . . Male children born to women who smoke during pregnancy run a risk of violent and criminal behavior that lasts well into adulthood.” Can we infer that smoking during pregnancy is responsible for criminal behavior in people?

In the 1980s, a study linked coffee to a higher risk of heart disease and pancreatic cancer. In the early 1990s, studies showed that drinking coffee posed minimal health threats. However, in 1994, a study showed that pregnant women who drank 3 or more cups of tea daily may be at risk for miscarriage. In 1998, a study claimed that women who drank more than a half‑cup of caffeinated tea every day may actually increase their fertility. In 1998, a study showed that over a lifetime, a few extra cups of coffee a day can raise blood pressure, heart rate, and stress.

In a sample of 100 individuals, 36% think that watching television is the best way to spend an evening.

State whether descriptive or inferential statistics has been used.

In a survey of 1000 adults, 34% said that they posted notes on social media websites.

State whether descriptive or inferential statistics has been used.

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