The speed of a water wave

The speed of a water wave is described by v = √, where d is the water depth, assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. Because their speed changes, water waves refract when moving into a region of different depth. Sketch a map of an ocean beach on the eastern side of a landmass. Show contour lines of constant depth under water, assuming reasonably uniform slope.
(a) Suppose that waves approach the coast from a storm far away to the north-northeast. Demonstrate that the waves will move nearly perpendicular to the shoreline when they reach the beach.
(b) Sketch a map of a coastline with alternating bays and headlands, as suggested in Figure P35.28. Again make a reasonable guess about the shape of contour lines of constant depth. Suppose that waves approach the coast, carrying energy with uniform density along originally straight wave fronts. Show that the energy reaching the coast is concentrated at the headlands and has lower intensity in the bays.

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