Helium–neon laser light (A = 632.8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central maximum on a screen 1.00 m
A beam of green light is diffracted by a slit of width 0.550 mm. The diffraction pattern forms on a wall 2.06 m beyond the slit. The distance between
A screen is placed 50.0 cm from a single slit, which is illuminated with 690-nm light. If the distance between the first and third minima in the
Coherent microwaves of wavelength 5.00 cm enter a long, narrow window in a building otherwise essentially opaque to the microwaves. If the window is
Sound with a frequency 650 Hz from a distant source passes through a doorway 1.10m wide in a sound-absorbing wall. Find the number and approximate
Light of wavelength 587.5 nm illuminates a single slit 0.750 mm in width.
(a) At what distance from the slit should a screen be located if the
A beam of laser light of wavelength 632.8 nm has a circular cross section 2.00 mm in diameter. A rectangular aperture is to be placed in the center
What If? Assume the light in Figure 38.5 strikes the single slit at an angle θ from the perpendicular direction. Show that Equation 38.1, the
A diffraction pattern is formed on a screen 120 cm away from a 0.400-mm-wide slit. Monochromatic 546.1-nm light is used. Calculate the fractional
Coherent light of wavelength 501.5 nm is sent through two parallel slits in a large flat wall. Each slit is 0.700 /m wide. Their centers are 2.80 /m
The pupil of a cat’s eye narrows to a vertical slit of width 0.500 mm in daylight. What is the angular resolution for horizontally separated mice?
Find the radius a star image forms on the retina of the eye if the aperture diameter (the pupil) at night is 0.700 cm and the length of the eye is
A helium–neon laser emits light that has a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The circular aperture through which the beam emerges has a diameter of 0.500 cm.
You are vacationing in a Wonderland populated by friendly elves and a cannibalistic Cyclops that devours physics students. The elves and the Cyclops
If she is in a certain range of distances away, the viewer can resolve the separate tubes of one color but not the other. Which color is easier to
On the night of April 18, 1775, a signal was sent from the steeple of Old North Church in Boston to Paul Revere, who was 1.80 mi away: “One if by
The Impressionist painter Georges Seurat created paintings with an enormous number of dots of pure pigment, each of which was approximately 2.00 mm
A binary star system in the constellation Orion has an angular interstellar separation of 1.00 x 10-5 rad. If = 500 nm, what is the smallest diameter
A spy satellite can consist essentially of a large-diameter concave mirror forming an image on a digital-camera detector and sending the picture to a
A circular radar antenna on a Coast Guard ship has a diameter of 2.10m and radiates at a frequency of 15.0 GHz. Two small boats are located 9.00 km
Grote Reber was a pioneer in radio astronomy. He constructed a radio telescope with a 10.0-m-diameter receiving dish. What was the telescope’s
When Mars is nearest the Earth, the distance separating the two planets is 88.6 x 106 km. Mars is viewed through a telescope whose mirror has a
White light is spread out into its spectral components by a diffraction grating. If the grating has 2 000 grooves per centimeter, at what angle does
Light from an argon laser strikes a diffraction grating that has 5 310 grooves per centimeter. The central and first order principal maxima are
The hydrogen spectrum has a red line at 656 nm and a blue line at 434 nm. What are the angular separations between these two spectral lines obtained
A helium–neon laser (A = 632.8 nm) is used to calibrate a diffraction grating. If the first-order maximum occurs at 20.5°, what is the spacing
Three discrete spectral lines occur at angles of 10.09°, 13.71°, and 14.77° in the first-order spectrum of a grating spectrometer.
(a) If the
Show that, whenever white light is passed through a diffraction grating of any spacing size, the violet end of the continuous visible spectrum in
A diffraction grating of width 4.00 cm has been ruled with 3 000 grooves/cm.
(a) What is the resolving power of this grating in the first three
The laser in a CD player must precisely follow the spiral track, along which the distance between one loop of the spiral and the next is only about
A source emits 531.62-nm and 531.81-nm light.
(a) What minimum number of grooves is required for a grating that resolves the two wavelengths in the
A diffraction grating has 4 200 rulings/cm. On a screen 2.00 m from the grating, it is found that for a particular order m, the maxima corresponding
A grating with 250 grooves/mm is used with an incandescent light source. Assume the visible spectrum to range in wavelength from 400 to 700 nm. In
A wide beam of laser light with a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed through several narrow parallel slits, separated by 1.20 mm, and falls on a
Potassium iodide (KI) has the same crystalline structure as NaCl, with atomic planes separated by 0.353 nm. A monochromatic x-ray beam shows
A wavelength of 0.129 nm characterizes K2 x-rays from zinc. When a beam of these x-rays is incident on the surface of a crystal whose structure is
The first-order diffraction maximum is observed at 12.6° for a crystal in which the interplanar spacing is 0.240 nm. How many other orders can be
In water of uniform depth, a wide pier is supported on pilings in several parallel rows 2.80 m apart. Ocean waves of uniform wavelength roll in,
Does your bathroom mirror show you older or younger than you actually are? Compute an order-of-magnitude estimate for the age difference, based on
In a church choir loft, two parallel walls are 5.30 m apart. The singers stand against the north wall. The organist faces the south wall, sitting
Determine the minimum height of a vertical flat mirror in which a person 5`10”. In height can see his or her full image. (A ray diagram would be
Two flat mirrors have their reflecting surfaces facing each other, with the edge of one mirror in contact with an edge of the other, so that the
A person walks into a room with two flat mirrors on opposite walls, which produce multiple images. When the person is located 5.00 ft from the mirror
A periscope (Figure P36.6) is useful for viewing objects that cannot be seen directly. It finds use in submarines and in watching golf matches or
A concave spherical mirror has a radius of curvature of 20.0 cm. Find the location of the image for object distances of
(a) 40.0 cm,
(b) 20.0 cm,
At an intersection of hospital hallways, a convex mirror is mounted high on a wall to help people avoid collisions. The mirror has a radius of
A spherical convex mirror has a radius of curvature with a magnitude of 40.0 cm. Determine the position of the virtual image and the magnification
A large church has a niche in one wall. On the floor plan it appears as a semicircular indentation of radius 2.50 m. A worshiper stands on the center
A concave mirror has a radius of curvature of 60.0 cm. Calculate the image position and magnification of an object placed in front of the mirror at
A concave mirror has a focal length of 40.0 cm. Determine the object position for which the resulting image is upright and four times the size of the
A certain Christmas tree ornament is a silver sphere having a diameter of 8.50 cm. Determine an object location for which the size of the reflected
(a) A concave mirror forms an inverted image four times larger than the object. Find the focal length of the mirror, assuming the distance between
To fit a contact lens to a patient’s eye, a keratometer can be used to measure the curvature of the front surface of the eye, the cornea. This
An object 10.0 cm tall is placed at the zero mark of a meter stick. A spherical mirror located at some point on the meter stick creates an image of
A spherical mirror is to be used to form, on a screen located 5.00m from the object, an image five times the size of the object.
(a) Describe the
A dedicated sports car enthusiast polishes the inside and outside surfaces of a hubcap that is a section of a sphere. When she looks into one side of
You unconsciously estimate the distance to an object from the angle it subtends in your field of view. This angle θ in radians is related to
A ball is dropped at t = 0 from rest 3.00 m directly above the vertex of a concave mirror that has a radius of curvature of 1.00m and lies in a
A cubical block of ice 50.0 cm on a side is placed on a level floor over a speck of dust. Find the location of the image of the speck as viewed from
A flint glass plate (n = 1.66) rests on the bottom of an aquarium tank. The plate is 8.00 cm thick (vertical dimension) and is covered with a layer
A glass sphere (n = 1.50) with a radius of 15.0 cm has a tiny air bubble 5.00 cm above its center. The sphere is viewed looking down along the
A simple model of the human eye ignores its lens entirely. Most of what the eye does to light happens at the outer surface of the transparent cornea.
One end of a long glass rod (n = 1.50) is formed into a convex surface with a radius of curvature of 6.00 cm. An object is located in air along the
A transparent sphere of unknown composition is observed to form an image of the Sun on the surface of the sphere opposite the Sun. What is the
A goldfish is swimming at 2.00 cm/s toward the front wall of a rectangular aquarium. What is the apparent speed of the fish measured by an observer
A contact lens is made of plastic with an index of refraction of 1.50. The lens has an outer radius of curvature of +2.00 cm and an inner radius of
The left face of a biconvex lens has a radius of curvature of magnitude 12.0 cm, and the right face has a radius of curvature of magnitude 18.0 cm.
A converging lens has a focal length of 20.0 cm. Locate the image for object distances of (a) 40.0 cm,
(b) 20.0 cm, and
(c) 10.0 cm. For each
A thin lens has a focal length of 25.0 cm. Locate and describes the image when the object is placed
(a) 26.0 cm and
(b) 24.0 cm in front of the
An object located 32.0 cm in front of a lens forms an image on a screen 8.00 cm behind the lens.
(a) Find the focal length of the lens.
The nickels image in Figure P36.33 has twice the diameter of the nickel and is 2.84 cm from the lens. Determine the focal length of the
A person looks at a gem with a jeweler’s loupe—a converging lens that has a focal length of 12.5 cm. The loupe forms a virtual image 30.0 cm from
Suppose an object has thickness dp so that it extends from object distance p to p + dp. Prove that the thickness dq of its image is given by
The projection lens in a certain slide projector is a single thin lens. A slide 24.0 mm high is to be projected so that its image fills a screen 1.80
An object is located 20.0 cm to the left of a diverging lens having a focal length f = -32.0 cm. Determine
(a) The location and
An antelope is at a distance of 20.0 m from a converging lens of focal length 30.0 cm. The lens forms an image of the animal. If the antelope runs
In some types of optical spectroscopy, such as photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy, a laser beam exits from a pupil and is focused on a sample
Figure P36.40 shows a thin glass (n = 1.50) converging lens for which the radii of curvature are R1 = 15.0 cm and R2 = -12.0 cm. To the left of the
An object is at a distance d to the left of a flat screen. A converging lens with focal length f < d/4 is placed between object and screen.
Figure 36.36 diagrams a cross section of a camera. It has a single lens of focal length 65.0 mm, which is to form an image on the film at the back of
The South American capybara is the largest rodent on Earth; its body can be 1.20 m long. The smallest rodent is the pygmy mouse found in Texas, with
The magnitudes of the radii of curvature are 32.5 cm and 42.5 cm for the two faces of a biconcave lens. The glass has index of refraction 1.53 for
Two rays traveling parallel to the principal axis strike a large plano-convex lens having a refractive index of 1.60 (Fig. P36.45). If the convex
A camera is being used with a correct exposure at f/4 and a shutter speed of (1/16) s. In order to photograph a rapidly moving subject, the shutter
A nearsighted person cannot see objects clearly beyond 25.0 cm (her far point). If she has no astigmatism and contact lenses are prescribed for her,
The accommodation limits for Nearsighted Nick’s eyes are 18.0 cm and 80.0 cm. When he wears his glasses, he can see faraway objects clearly. At
A person sees clearly when he wears eyeglasses that have a power of -4.00 diopters and sit 2.00 cm in front of his eyes. If the person wants to
A lens that has a focal length of 5.00 cm is used as a magnifying glass.
(a) To obtain maximum magnification, where should the object be placed?
The distance between eyepiece and objective lens in a certain compound microscope is 23.0 cm. The focal length of the eyepiece is 2.50 cm, and that
The desired overall magnification of a compound microscope is 140/. The objective alone produces a lateral magnification of 12.0X. Determine the
The Yerkes refracting telescope has a 1.00-m diameter objective lens of focal length 20.0 m. Assume it is used with an eyepiece of focal length 2.50
Astronomers often take photographs with the objective lens or mirror of a telescope alone, without an eyepiece.
(a) Show that the image size h` for
Galileo devised a simple terrestrial telescope that produces an upright image. It consists of a converging objective lens and a diverging eyepiece at
A certain telescope has an objective mirror with an aperture diameter of 200 mm and a focal length of 2 000 mm. It captures the image of a nebula on
The distance between an object and its upright image is 20.0 cm. If the magnification is 0.500, what is the focal length of the lens that is being
The distance between an object and its upright image is d. If the magnification is M, what is the focal length of the lens that is being used to form
Your friend needs glasses with diverging lenses of focal length - 65.0 cm for both eyes. You tell him he looks good when he doesn’t squint, but he
A cylindrical rod of glass with index of refraction 1.50 is immersed in water with index 1.33. The diameter of the rod is 9.00 cm. The outer part of
A zoom lens system is a combination of lenses that produces a variable magnification while maintaining fixed object and image positions. The
The object in Figure P36.62 is midway between the lens and the mirror. The mirrors radius of curvature is 20.0 cm, and the lens has a
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