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With the aid of labeled sketches describe the construction of single phase transformers. Your description should include shell and core type construction and winding arrangements of the sandwiched, concentric and auto wound types. Briefly comment on the characteristics and applications of the different types of construction you have described.
Transformers are used at various points in the transmission and distribution of electrical energy e.g generator transform step up the output voltage of the generator to transmission level, transmission transformers provide interconnection between grid networks of different voltages, bulk supply transformers provide supplies to regional supply companies, distribution transformers provide electricity to commercial and domestic customers and current transformers are used to detect overloads and operate protective devices. You are required to identify two of these transformers and compare their construction you should include information on core construction winding arrangement, insulation, number of phases and mode of connection (wye/delta), cooling, tertiary windings, ancillary equipment, voltage range and voltage and power ratings. Draw the diagram of connections and phasor diagrams for your chosen transformers and use them to illustrate line and phase voltages and phase deference between input and output
How does the ‘B-H curve’ of a single-phase transformer relate to the voltage and current waveforms found on a transformer winding?
By showing the primary and secondary connections of three single-phase transformers, illustrate the following three-phase transformer connections: star–star, and star–delta. What is the relationship between the line voltages (magnitude and phase) at the input and output of a star-delta transformer (if the single-phase transformer winding ratios are 1:1)?
When harmonic distortion occurs?
Comment on any advantages of the use of a star-delta transformer connection in practice.
What is the practical significance of harmonic currents and imbalance between phases?
If 60 C of charge pass through an electric conductor in 30 seconds, determine the current in the conductor.
If the current in an electric conductor is 2.4 A, how many coulombs of charge pass any point in a 30 second interval?
Determine the time interval required for a 12-A battery charger to deliver 4800 C.
A lightning bolt carrying 30,000 A lasts for 50 microseconds. If the lightning strikes an airplane flying at 20,000 feet, what is the charge deposited on the plane?
Determine the energy required to move 240 C through 6 V
Determine the amount of power absorbed or supplied by the element shown if

(a) V1 = 4v, I = 2A
(b) V1 = -4v, I = -2A
Determine the amount of power absorbed or supplied by the element shown if

(a) V1 = -6V, I = 3A
(b) V1 = 6V, I = -3A
The diagram is included in the solution.

Determine the missing quantity in the circuits shown.
=24 W = 12 V I=2A

Determine the missing quantity in the circuits shown.
p=-24 w =12W

Determine the missing quantity in the circuits shown.
1=-4A

Determine the power supplied to the elements shown
A +2 . +8

Determine the power supplied to the elements shown.
2 4 1 4 2 4
Two elements are connected in series, as shown. Element 1 supplies of power. Is element 2 absorbing or supplying power, and how much?
67
Two elements are connected in series, as shown. Element 1 absorbs of power. Is element 2 absorbing or supplying power, and how much?
12 у
Determine the power that is absorbed or supplied by the circuit elements shown.
+10 V 2 A 2.A 1 A 24 2 14 V 18 12 у 2 A
Find the power that is absorbed or supplied by the circuit elements shown.
2 A 20 T 2 A + 14 V 16 Tr 4 A 2 A 4.A
Compute the power that is absorbed or supplied by the elements in the network shown.
+12 44A 14. 2A 2 4 2 24 V 3 28 V
Find Is in the network shown.
1A 6 A 12 T 4 112y
Is the source V(s) in the network shown absorbing or supplying power, and how much?
ЗА 9 A 10 1 9.A 16 T
Find Vs in the network shown
2 A 4 .A 8 V+ 2 1 Yo A
Find Io in the network shown.
+8 V 6 A 74 A 24 + 2 10 6 T 4 16 V 3,1 8 + 1 A ЗА
Find the current I and the power supplied by the source in the network shown
20 kΩ
In the circuit shown, find the voltage across the current source and the power absorbed by the resistor.

3 mA
If the 10 K ohms resistor in the network shown absorbs 2.5 mW, find Vs.

Vs 10 kΩ
In the network shown, the power absorbed by R is 5 mW. Find R.

In the network shown, the power absorbed
In the network shown, the power absorbed by R is 20 mW. Find R.

In the network shown, the power
A model for a standard two D-cell flashlight is shown. Find the power dissipated in the lamp.

1-Ω lamp 15 V 1.3 V
An automobile uses two halogen headlights connected as shown. Determine the power supplied by the battery if each headlight draws 3 A of current.

12 V
Many years ago a string of Christmas tree lights was manufactured in the form shown in

(a). Today the lights are manufactured as shown in
(b). Is there a good reason for this change?

Many years ago a string of Christmas tree lights
Find I1 in the network shown.

mA 12 mA
Find I1 and I2 in the circuit shown.

13 = 5 mA 14 = 6 mA
Find Ix and Iy in the network shown.

4 mA 12 mA tiA
Find Ix, Iy and Iz in the circuit shown.

12 mA 2 mA.
Find Ix in the circuit shown.

1 mA 4 mA
Find Ix, Iy and Iz in the network shown

12 mA -サ 4 mii 2 tnnA
Find Ix in the circuit shown

2 mA 21,
Find Ix in the network shown.

41x 1 mA
Find Vx in the circuit shown.

Find Vx in the circuit shown.  2032
Find Vbd in the circuit shown.

+ 4V- 12 V 2 V
Find Vad in the network shown.

3V + 2V + 12 V 3
Find Vaf and Vec in the circuit shown.

+1 V 12 V 3 V 2 W -2V + -1V e
Find Vac in the circuit shown.

2 + 4V 12V \ - V,-2V
Find Vad and Vce in the circuit shown.

t )12 V 1v
Find Vab in the network shown.

2Ω -「ブ1 Ω 4/0A 2Ω
Find Vbd in the network shown.

2 12 V cl
Find Vx in the circuit shown.

24 vt
Find Vx in the circuit shown.

24 W
Find Vx in the network shown.

15 Ω 5 V
Find V1 in the network shown.

Find V1 in the network shown.
Find the power absorbed by the 30 K ohms resistor in the circuit shown.

30 kΩ 12 V 10 kΩ
Find Io in the network shown.

12 tnA
Find Io in the circuit shown.

120 mA
Find Io in the network shown.

12 kΩ 12 kΩ 12 mA
Find Vo in the circuit shown.

24 mA
Find Io in the network shown.

12 mA
Determine Ix in the circuit shown.

Determine Ix in the circuit shown.
Determine I(L) in the circuit shown.

th 3 mA
Find RAB in the circuit shown.

12 kΩ во
Find Rab in the circuit shown.

Find Rab in the circuit shown.  2080
Find Rab in the network shown.

Find Rab in the network shown.  2083
Find Rab in the circuit shown.

Find Rab in the circuit shown.  2087
Find Rab in the network shown.

Find Rab in the network shown.  2089
Find Rab in the circuit shown.

12 kΩ 12 kΩ
Find Rab in the circuit shown.

Find Rab in the circuit shown.  2094
Given the network shown, find the possible range of values for the current and power dissipated by the following resistors:
a) 390 ohms with a tolerance of 1%.
b) 560 ohms with a tolerance of 2%.

Given the network shown
Find the range of resistance for the following resistors:
a) 1 k ohms with a tolerance of 5%.
b) 470 ohms with a tolerance of 2%.
c) 22 ohms with a tolerance of 10%.
Given the circuit shown:
a) Find the required value of.
b) Use Table 2.1 to select a standard 10% tolerance resistor for.
c) Calculate the actual value of.
d) Determine the percent error between the actual value of and that shown in the circuit.
e) Determine the power rating for the resistor.


1=40mA 510 Ω 100 mA
The resistors and shown in the circuit are with a tolerance of 5% and with a tolerance of 10%, respectively.
a) What is the nominal value of the equivalent resistance?
b) Determine the positive and negative tolerance for the equivalent resistance.


The resistors and shown in the circuit
Find 1/1 and Vo in the circuit shown.


Find I1 and Vo in the circuit shown
Find 11 and Vo in the circuit shown.


12 V +
Find 11 in the circuit shown.


12 mA 10 kΩ
Determine Vo in the network shown.


2 mA
Find Vo in the network shown.


2Ω 8Ω 2Ω 4Ω 4Ω 2 4 W
Find VO in the circuit shown.


24 W
Find 1/0 in the network shown.


10 kΩ 12 W
Find 10 in the network shown.


10 kΩ 12 W
If VO= 4 v in the network shown, find VS.


If VO= 4 v in the network shown, find VS.
Find 1/o in the circuit shown.


12 V
Find VO in the network shown.


12 mA
If the power absorbed by the resistor in the network shown is 36 mW, find .


If the power absorbed by the resistor in the network
If the power absorbed by the 4k ohms resistor in the circuit shown is 36 mW, find Vs.


12 kΩ
In the network shown, the power absorbed by the 4 ohms resistor is 100 W. Find Vs.


3Ω 4Ω 3Ω
In the network shown, Vo = 6v . Find Is.


In the network shown, Vo = 6v . Find Is.
In the circuit shown, I =4mA Find Vs.


In the circuit shown, I =4mA. .  Find Vs.
In the circuit shown, Io = 2 mA. Find Is.


IS
In the network shown, V1 = 12 V. Find Vs.


In the network shown, V1 = 12 V.  Find Vs.
In the circuit shown, Vo = 2 V. Find Is.


12Ω 2Ω 8Ω 10Ω 3Ω
In the network shown, Vo = 6v. Find Is.


In the network shown, Vo = 6v.  Find Is
In the circuit shown, Io = 2A. Find Is.


4Ω 6 V 8Ω 3Ω 4Ω
If Io = 4 mA in the circuit shown, find Is.


10 kΩ 12 V
Find Io in the circuit shown.


1 5 mA 12 kΩ 12 kΩ 12 kΩ miA
Find Vo in the circuit shown.


12 kΩ 18 kΩ 11 = 4 mA 42 W
Find the power absorbed by the network shown.


21 V 12 kΩ 18 kΩ
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