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Discuss several areas in which HR can affect organizational culture positively or negatively.

Give some examples of ethical issues that you have experienced in jobs, and explain how HR did or did not help resolve them.

Why is it important for HR management to transform from being primarily administrative and operational to becoming a more strategic contributor?

Assume you are an HR director with a staff of seven people. A departmental objective is for all staff members to become professionally certified within a year. Using Internet resources of HR associations such as www.shrm.org and www.WorldatWork.org, develop a table that identifies four to six certifications that could be obtained by your staff members, and show the important details for each certification.

Your company, a growing firm in the financial services industry, is extremely sensitive to the issues surrounding business ethics. The company wants to be proactive in developing a business ethics training program for all employees both to ensure the company’s reputation as an ethical company in the community and to help maintain the industry’s high standards. As the HR Director and someone who values the importance of having all employees trained in the area of business ethics, you are in charge of developing the ethics training program. It needs to be a basic program that can be presented to all employees in the company. Resources for business ethics information can be found at www.business-ethics.org/primer1.html.
What legislative act prompted many U.S. companies to develop internal ethical policies and procedures?

Your company, a growing firm in the financial services industry, is extremely sensitive to the issues surrounding business ethics. The company wants to be proactive in developing a business ethics training program for all employees both to ensure the company’s reputation as an ethical company in the community and to help maintain the industry’s high standards. As the HR Director and someone who values the importance of having all employees trained in the area of business ethics, you are in charge of developing the ethics training program. It needs to be a basic program that can be presented to all employees in the company. Resources for business ethics information can be found at www.business-ethics.org/primer1.html.
What are key concepts related to business ethics that should be considered in the development of the ethics training program?

Firms in a variety of industries have been recognized as being among the Most Admired Companies by Fortune magazine. Others have been highlighted as being the Best Companies to Work For by Fortune or as Optimas Award winners by Workforce Management. These recognitions contain some common elements because of how HR management has contributed to organizational success and is being positively viewed by employees. Three examples are highlighted here. One recognized firm is Google, which is well known by many individuals because of its Internet components. Google has an HR image as a creative contributor to business objectives through its work environment guided by HR. According to the head of HR at Google, Lazio Bock, the overriding key of HR at Google is its emphasis on organizational culture and business objectives. The focus of Google HR is on giving its employees flexibility to produce results, not just following core job requirements. Consequently, HR at Google has established innovative efforts for its people and has made the administrative part of HR efficient. Minimizing numerous HR administrative forms, data, and reports by using technology has occurred, which would be expected in a prominent technology firm. At Google, HR communicates to its employees extensively about business objectives, organizational results, and relevant current information. Because many of the Google employees are stock shareholders also, they have a personal interest in Google being a successful business. Thus they continuously want to know the operational results by seeing current reports, data, and information. Overall, Google’s HR approach is unique in comparison to the approaches at other companies recognized by Fortune, but its success illustrates that how HR is established and operates can be a key to organizational success. A different firm with a variety of organizations and a strong HR culture is Scripps Network, a prominent television and communications corporation. At Scripps, HR plays a core role in establishing strategic goals and efforts. Even when Scripps has merged separate media firms, HR has focused on getting the cultures of the two entities to integrate effectively. Several HR functions are used to support the culture and core values at Scripps. One is an active pay-for-performance system to reward employees at higher job levels with base pay increases, annual incentives, and long-term incentives. Another key part of HR efforts at Scripps is that HR emphasizes leadership development throughout the firm. Additionally, the firm has widely used work variability efforts such as worklife balance, telecommuting, and worker flexible schedules. These are done as part of a core value at Scripps of “compassion/support.” A different firm with an extended history of effectively integrating corporate culture and HR is UPS, the transportation and logistics delivery firm that operates worldwide. Its culture is different from the cultures of Google and Scripps; however, for more than a decade, UPS has been recognized for its corporate integrity, culture, and HR inclusion with employees. UPS has emphasized linking HR with business objectives and uses communication and intranet programs to ensure that employees are kept constantly informed on business objectives and workforce challenges. One well-recognized component at UPS is the established codes of conduct that are consistently reviewed with all employees. These reviews include specific examples of ethical situations that employees may face and how to respond to them. Annually, managers complete a “conduct code” report that asks specific questions about ethical problems that have arisen during the year. These three firms are in different industries, have different cultures, and use a variety of HR efforts. However, each of them has been recognized for implementing HR as core to their organizational cultures and successful business results.51
How does the integration of HR with the organizational culture contribute to the success of Google, Scripps, and UPS? To find ideas, go to the corporate website for each of these companies and search for additional insights.

How does the market-driven approach illustrate that HR has strategic, operational, and administrative roles at SYSCO?

Discuss what types of HR changes could have affected reductions in workers’ compensation expenses, employee turnover, and increases in customer satisfaction.

Discuss how technology has changed jobs in an organization where you have worked. What are some HR responses to those changes?

What steps can HR professionals take to ensure that mergers and acquisitions are successful? How can HR help during the integration process?

How can an organization maintain its image while dealing with a talent surplus? If layoffs are necessary, what would you recommend managers do to ensure that survivors remain committed and productive?

As the HR manager for a multinational corporation, you want to identify HR competencies that are critical for global companies. Visit the website for the World Federation of People Management Association (www.wfpma.com) to research the topic and to identify differences in the body of knowledge in different parts of the world.

As the HR Director of a U.S.-based company that is looking at global opportunities in China, you have been asked by the company president to prepare an outline for an HR strategic plan as part of the company’s expansion process. You need to develop an HR strategic plan that will integrate the goals, objectives, and strategies of the HR Department with those of the company. The plan also needs to support the objectives of other departments within the company. To get ideas on how to develop an HR strategic plan, go to www.workinfo.com.
What is the process to use for identifying the components of the HR strategic planning process?

As the HR Director of a U.S.-based company that is looking at global opportunities in China, you have been asked by the company president to prepare an outline for an HR strategic plan as part of the company’s expansion process. You need to develop an HR strategic plan that will integrate the goals, objectives, and strategies of the HR Department with those of the company. The plan also needs to support the objectives of other departments within the company. To get ideas on how to develop an HR strategic plan, go to www.workinfo.com.
What other company strategic objectives must the HR strategic plan integrate and support?

The power of HR metrics and analytics is an untapped resource for many organizations. Human resource information systems (HRIS) are commonly used to capture and store gigabytes of data about employees, but few organizations have mined their data to improve human capital decisions. Most business leaders and HR executives do not make people decisions with the same level of rigor and rationale as they do other business decisions, relying more on intuition and gut feelings. This propagates the myth that the impact of human resources on organizations is either not measurable or not significant. Financial, operational, and marketing decisions all depend heavily on detailed analysis and cost justification. The use of analytics in human resource management can enhance the strategic contribution of HR executives and lead to better decisions and organizational outcomes. At Superior Energy Services in New Orleans, careful analysis of turnover data shattered previous beliefs about which employees were most likely to quit. The organization was losing skilled oilfield operators and supervisors faster than semiskilled blue-collar workers. This discovery led to implementation of training and coaching programs for supervisory employees, which resulted in a 15% drop in turnover and improved the bottom line of the company. Without this analytic approach to turnover, attention would have been focused on retaining blue-collar workers, which would not have delivered such impressive results. Thrivent Financial for Lutherans in Minneapolis believed that turnover during the first year of new hires’ careers was related to the previous experience they had in their disciplines. The thinking was that if a customer service employee had previously worked in customer service, she was less likely to leave Thrivent in the first year. Analytics dispelled that theory and Thrivent found that the exact opposite was true. Employees with previous experience in the discipline were leaving at a faster rate than those without such experience. Although they have not determined the causes, this data will help Thrivent’s leaders to address the real issues. One answer will lead to additional questions and lines of inquiry. The food service and convenience company Wawa, Inc., assumed that turnover among store clerks was tied to their hourly wage rate. However, the number of hours worked in a week was a much more significant factor in turnover. Employees liked working part-time, and when their work hours exceeded 30 hours per week, they were more likely to quit. Wawa reduced instore turnover by 60% by scheduling employees for less than 30 hours. Concerns about an aging workforce and a presumption that a high percentage of employees would retire in the near term led the University of Southern California to carefully analyze employee demographic data. To their surprise, HR found that the nontenured staff employees were, on average, too young to begin retiring en masse. Tenured faculty, while much older, are far more likely to work past the age of 70. The anticipated retirements are still a fact for USC to address. However, managers can plan for this and develop a longer-term transition plan because they are not facing massive retirements in the near future. The HR executives at Superior Energy Services, Thrivent, Wawa, and USC are harnessing the power of HR data and statistical models to better understand the challenges facing their organizations. Long-held beliefs about the patterns of employee actions and decisions can be analyzed and either supported or debunked. Either way, the organization can address the true issues only if HR looks beyond the surface and digs deeper into the sea of data. Overcoming the fear of number-crunching and developing expertise with metrics and analytics can separate winning organizations from those that get left behind. HR professionals who learn to interpret bits and bytes of employee data will help their organizations succeed well into the future.
1. What are some reasons that more organizations do not implement HR analytics? How would you make the case for adopting HR analytics?
2. How can HR professionals develop the needed skills to analyze and interpret metrics? What resources could an HR professional consult to begin building expertise in this area?

Discuss the challenges faced by HR management when significant staff cutbacks occur and how they should be addressed.

Use of technology, employee retention, and HR development have been at the core of HR becoming more strategic at Xerox. Why have those areas been so key?

If your employer asked you to review the decision not to hire an African American applicant for a job, what would you need to consider?

Explain why you agree or disagree with affirmative action and how affirmative action may be affected by growing workforce diversity.

From your own experience or that of someone you know, give examples of the two types of sexual harassment.

Use this text and the U.S. Department of Justice website (www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/) to identify what is reasonable accommodation and how it is determined.

The leadership in your company has changed as the result of a merger of your company with another company. The other company provides services similar to those provided by your company; however, the workforce demographic varies from that of your existing employees. For instance, the other company in the merger has a culture that recognizes and supports domestic partners. You have received a request to prepare a Diversity Initiative Plan. As HR Manager, you are aware that your existing employees will have issues and concerns and that you will need to institute some new policies, practices, and procedures. A resource for information on developing a Diversity Initiative Plan and diversity training is www.diversitycentral.com.
What should the plan include?

The leadership in your company has changed as the result of a merger of your company with another company. The other company provides services similar to those provided by your company; however, the workforce demographic varies from that of your existing employees. For instance, the other company in the merger has a culture that recognizes and supports domestic partners. You have received a request to prepare a Diversity Initiative Plan. As HR Manager, you are aware that your existing employees will have issues and concerns and that you will need to institute some new policies, practices, and procedures. A resource for information on developing a Diversity Initiative Plan and diversity training is www.diversitycentral.com.
What diversity training programs should be offered to assist the employees of both companies in merging the two companies together?

As immigrants continue to come to the United States from many different cultures and religions, differences will cause some challenges and problems. One area where this has occurred is with Islamic culture and religion in the meat processing industry. A plant (a fresh chicken facility) belonging to Tyson Foods, Inc., in Shelbyville, Tennessee, is one example. The company hired about 250 people from Somalia. A long-running civil war in their country has forced many Somalis to settle in the United States as refugees, and many Somalis are Muslim. The union at the plant requested replacing the paid holiday Labor Day with Eid ul-Fitr, a religious holiday marking the end of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. The request was brought up as part of negotiations for a new labor contract, and was part of the overall contract proposal approved by union members. The plant is often open on Labor Day anyway to meet consumer demand during the barbeque season. Along with holiday pay, the workers also received time and a half for hours worked on Labor Day. The EEOC says employers may not treat people more or less favorably because of their religion. However, religious accommodation may be warranted unless it would impose an undue hardship on the employer. Flexible scheduling, voluntary time swaps, transfers, and reassignments are possible means of accommodation, along with other policies and practices. Tyson’s consideration of exchanging Labor Day for Eid ul-Fitr brought strong reactions from non-Muslim workers and the general public. The union voted again on the issue and overwhelmingly voted to reinstate Labor Day as a paid holiday. The company’s solution was to have eight paid holidays, including a “personal holiday” that could be either the employee’s birthday, Eid ul-Fitr, or another day approved by the employee’s supervisor. That compromise was acceptable to the workers. Another company that faced similar issues is JBS-SWIFT, a meat packer with plants in Grand Island, Nebraska, and Greeley, Colorado. That company also hired many Somali Muslims. The issue there was prayer time. In Greeley, the Muslim workers demanded time to pray at sundown—a requirement during Ramadan. The plant works three shifts. More than 300 workers walked out when they were told they could not have the time to pray. More than 100 were fired later, not for walking out but for not returning to work. The walkout touched off protests from workers of different faiths who thought the request for religious accommodation was too much. The EEOC ruled that JBS-SWIFT had violated the civil rights of the employees it had fired. The company was found to have denied religious accommodation and retaliated against workers who complained. JBS-SWIFT has since set up special prayer rooms at its plants and allows Muslim workers to meet their religious obligations, which include prayers five times daily.
1. What is the legal basis for the EEOC to hold that JBS-SWIFT had violated the employees’ civil rights?
2. Contrast the solutions to the Tyson situation and the JBS-SWIFT situation. Which is likely to have the greatest positive impact on the company and why?

Discuss why making changes such as Mitsubishi did is important both legally and for improving HR management with the employees and managers.

Discuss how disparate treatment and disparate impact were factors affecting this case.

Describe how diversity of workers has been impacting organizations, including organizations for which you have worked recently.

For many individuals, the nature of work and jobs is changing. Describe these changes, some reasons for them, and how they are affecting both HR management and individuals.

Explain how you would conduct a job analysis in a company that has never had job descriptions. Utilize the O*Net as a resource for your information.

You need to convince upper management of the usefulness of a companywide diversity program. How will you define diversity, and what arguments can be made for so defining it? Use the website www.diversityinc.com and other sources to gather the necessary information.

You have recently assumed the role of HR Manager in your company. In reviewing the company records, you note that the job descriptions were last updated 5 years ago. The Company President has taken the position that there is no need to update the job descriptions. However, you also note that the company has grown by 50% during the last 5 years, resulting in many changes, including some in job functions. You want to build a business case to convince the Company President of the need to update the job descriptions. To help you build your case, use the information on the purpose of job descriptions at www.hrtools.com.
How can job descriptions be used as a management tool?

You have recently assumed the role of HR Manager in your company. In reviewing the company records, you note that the job descriptions were last updated 5 years ago. The Company President has taken the position that there is no need to update the job descriptions. However, you also note that the company has grown by 50% during the last 5 years, resulting in many changes, including some in job functions. You want to build a business case to convince the Company President of the need to update the job descriptions. To help you build your case, use the information on the purpose of job descriptions at www.hrtools.com.
What role do job descriptions have in helping companies comply with various legal issues?

Best Buy is a large national retailer with many full-time and part-time employees in more than 1,000 stores. Beginning several years ago, Best Buy has made major changes in its work schedules. Rather than emphasizing fixed hours, Best Buy increased use of flexible work hours in its corporate headquarters and stores. Based on the success of an initial experimental program with 300 employees in some departments, the changes have evolved into a more broadly used program labeled ROWE—Results Only Work Environment. At the heart of ROWE is the philosophy of focusing on employees getting their work done, not just meeting clock hours. To implement ROWE, managers and employees have had to identify performance result expectations and measures for all jobs. The focus of ROWE has been on how people make judgments on work to be done and the time at work to do it. The core focus of ROWE is employee performance meeting expectations, not just being at work. The HR payoff of ROWE has been significant. According to metrics, voluntary employee turnover has declined in some divisions by as much as 75% to 90% over several years. Average worker productivity in the same period increased over one-third. Some other key results of the ROWE plan have been: • Increased customer satisfaction because of the work-results focus of Best Buy employees
• Higher employee morale and engagement because of the ability to place work and life demands in balance
• Higher managerial performance because of the attention to results, not just on training schedules and regulations For some employees and managers with family responsibilities and personal interests, one of the greatest advantages of the ROWE program is the ability for them to achieve better work-life balance. From mothers of school-aged children to single males involved in hobbies and sports, employees can adjust schedules to meet their personal and professional needs. For instance, one employee left often in early afternoon in order to participate in entertainment activities. Other employees have finished work and gone hunting or golfing during the “normal workweek” because they had completed their work requirements. Obviously, these persons can make expansive use of technology for doing their work anywhere, such as getting messages while at family or sporting events, responding quickly to job-related questions, and providing immediate work-related information. The ROWE program now has been expanded to include retail store managers and workers. Doing so has meant making some modifications to ensure that sufficient salespersons are available to serve customers at a wide range of days and times. But with Best Buy retail stores previously experiencing a turnover rate of 60% plus, adapting to ROWE has been important. It has helped with recruiting store employees, retaining them so that turnover has decreased, and enhancing customer service. In summary, the change in the culture at Best Buy to focus on results, employee success, and greater work flexibility has made Best Buy one of the best places for many people to shop and work. How this program will expand and modify as economic, workforce diversity, and jobs change will be interesting to observe.
1. Discuss how a ROWE-type program would fit in organizations where you have worked. Explain why it would or would not work.
2. Identify factors in the ROWE program that might make using it for retail employees more difficult than using it for managers and employees in corporate offices, technical centers, and nonretail jobs and locations.

Discuss why Donnelley had to coordinate HR activities with the changes in jobs and work.

Identify examples of how technology has changed jobs where you have worked and what HR activities were handled well and poorly.

Discuss the major components of HR planning and forecasting efforts.

Describe your expectations for a job. How well does your employer meet the expectations you bring to the psychological contract?

If you became the new manager at a restaurant with high employee turnover, what actions would you take to increase retention of employees?

As the HR manager, you must provide the senior management team with turnover costs for the following high-turnover position. Use Web sites such as
www.talentkeepers.com and www.keepemployees.comm, to calculate turnover and analyze the variables involved. Also, identify any other data that might be relevant, and then discuss how you would reduce the turnover.
The position is: Number of turnovers: 85
Machine operator Average wage: $11.50/hour
Number of employees: 250 Cost of benefits 35%

Your company has reaped the benefits of having long-term, tenured employees, but many of them are now approaching retirement. It is anticipated that approximately 20% of the company’s workforce will retire in the next 3 to 5 years. In reviewing the remaining workforce through HR planning efforts, you have become aware of work-life balance issues that need to be reviewed and addressed. The Company President has requested that you prepare a Retention Plan outlining these issues as well as ways to address them. Resources to help you address the issues in the Retention Plan can be found at www.workfamily.com.
What steps will you take to identify key priorities in the work-life balance issues?

Your company has reaped the benefits of having long-term, tenured employees, but many of them are now approaching retirement. It is anticipated that approximately 20% of the company’s workforce will retire in the next 3 to 5 years. In reviewing the remaining workforce through HR planning efforts, you have become aware of work-life balance issues that need to be reviewed and addressed. The Company President has requested that you prepare a Retention Plan outlining these issues as well as ways to address them. Resources to help you address the issues in the Retention Plan can be found at www.workfamily.com.
How will you present a business case to gain management support for addressing those issues in order to help retain existing workers and to fill the positions vacated by retiring employees?

Accenture is a firm that provides a wide range of consulting and services to organizations worldwide. With more than 170,000 employees, the firm has clients in 120 countries that receive many HR and other consulting services. Among others, these services include organizational, strategic, and change management analyses; leadership training and development; and technology assistance and supply chain assistance. Large and small client organizations also outsource various operational functions to Accenture instead of performing them internally with employees. Thus, Accenture has many individuals who serve as consultants and support experts on specialized areas and industries. Because of its many professional consulting and support staff members, Accenture has to manage its own human resources effectively in order to serve both itself and its clients. The rapid growth of this widespread firm has caused Accenture to hire up to 60,000 employees in just one year due to the expansion of clients and the need to replace employees who have left to become employees at other firms, to become independent consultants, or to work as employees at client firms. What Accenture does for its own employees illustrates one reason why it is widely used by clients. At the heart of Accenture’s approach for itself is to consider its employees as a virtual workforce. This means that numerous employees work in many different places at different times, often using work-life balancing, technology resources, and work-related job flexibility. With offices in more than 150 cities worldwide, the work locations and schedules vary so much that numerous Accenture consultants have to reserve a desk at an office when they need to be there. Otherwise, many employees are encouraged to work outside offices. The out-of-office environment presents an extensive HR challenge for Accenture in terms of engaging its employees. Many consultant employees work intermittently with a variety of managers and coworkers, in teams as large as 1,000 consultants, throughout multiple countries. To practice retention in its own firm, Accenture does extensive training and development of employees. All new Accenture workers participate in “New Joiner Orientation” where they learn what is expected of them, do sample client projects with coworkers, and become linked to personal career counselors. Career training and development efforts include a wide range of activities, access to Accenture’s “Career Marketplace” website, and training in how to work effectively on different types of projects and in global locations. The value of these activities is shown in the fact that almost 39% of Accenture’s open U.S. jobs are filled by current employees who change and/or increase their job levels. What Accenture’s employee retention program emphasizes is that the firm does not just consult about HR and other services for clients, but also does for itself what many current and potential clients need to do, which is to view HR planning and retention as crucial for organizational success and growth.
1. Identify how some Accenture-type efforts have and have not occurred in your current and previous workplaces. Also, discuss why focusing on employee retention pays off for Accenture clients, and not just for Accenture itself.
2. Go to the Accenture website, www.accenture .com, to research and gather job- and careerrelated information that might need to be adapted by other employers. As part of this research, examine how Accenture markets itself to current and potential employees.

Discuss how Alegent’s practices match with the recommended retention practices covered in the chapter.

Why was Alegent’s broad based approach to nursing retention important?

What labor markets should be considered when recruiting to fill an opening for a sales representative for a pharmaceutical manufacturer?

Discuss ways a regional bank could use the Internet effectively to recruit loan officer professionals.

Describe how a local firm might be able to utilize college/university interns to generate future applicants for jobs planned within the next one to two years.

Assume you are going to look for a current job of interest to you. Utilize broad websites such as www.Job.com, Yahoo! HotJobs, Monster, Taleo, and others to learn about job possibilities for yourself.

Your small marketing company of about 50 workers has traditionally recruited employees using newspaper print advertisements. Due to diminished recruiting efforts from your ads, the company is interested in using more Internet and social media recruiting. The company President has requested that you, as HR Manager, prepare an overview of how Internet recruiting efforts will be different from the traditional methods used by the company. You will need to make a case for why the company should transition to Internet recruiting and identify the benefits for doing so. To prepare an overview, review the resources found at www.recruitersnetwork.com/
As you recruit marketing professionals, identify the niche websites that you recommend be used for your Internet postings and the reasons for your recommendations.

As economic conditions became more demanding for some employers, other firms continued to recruit people for jobs. One firm, Kia Motors America, added a large number of jobs at one of its newer facilities. As a subsidiary of a South Korean corporation, Kia Motors America added tons of equipment at its West Point, Georgia, plant, so that ultimately about 300,000 vehicles would be produced annually. As the firm sought recruits to fill its Georgia plant workforce, more than 40,000 individuals applied for the jobs, the bulk of which were production and maintenance positions. However, the need for people in a variety of other occupations, including air-conditioning service people, cafeteria workers, and medical staff, added to the depth and scope of Kia’s recruiting. A limited time frame for applications was set by Kia as part of its recruitment planning. In the recruiting process, a variety of regional and area sources were contacted as part of the Kia broad publicity and inclusive efforts in the area. Randy Jackson, HR Director, spent a month visiting colleges and churches, appearing on radio and television shows, and using other means to market Kia’s recruiting and employment efforts. All of these activities were done to inform applicants about the numerous jobs at Kia and the monthlong time frame for application. To make its recruiting system effective in screening the large number of applicants, Kia established an online-only application process on a special website. As part of its recruiting efforts, Kia and a Georgia Department of Labor agency worked together. One of the agency activities was to make computers available at a local technical college, libraries, and other locations for those persons without home-based Internet. Having the online system allowed Kia’s HR staff to move quickly to identify those applicants who matched available jobs. The use of this system by HR recruiters and managers doing the hiring made the selection process more efficient. To aid in the selection of employees, recruiting software was used to sort applicants into electronic “buckets,” divided by work experiences and education. Then an eight-step process was established to let applicants obtain a realistic job preview of working at Kia. These recruiting actions resulted in the hiring of more than 500 new employees within six months. During the rest of the year, an additional 1,200 workers were hired, primarily for the second shift, and more were hired later. Although smaller employers might not use such an extensive recruiting process, the Kia process illustrates the kinds of recruiting planning, activities, Internet linkages, and other means that can be used by both large and small employers doing recruiting. The long-term success of Kia’s efforts to staff its Georgia operation demonstrates ways in which HR can use both time- and costeffective recruiting to hire qualified individuals.66
1. Describe how employing a large number of new workers requires strategic recruiting planning and operational efforts, and discuss what aspects might be different in smaller firms.
2. Discuss how utilizing the Internet, like Kia did and other employers do, is changing how recruiting efforts are occurring for a variety of jobs in employers of different sizes.

How does having multiple recruiting means help Enterprise establish its brand?

Go to the Enterprise Website (www.enterprise.com) and check out the game, career opportunities, and other components. Then evaluate how effective you feel the Web site is as an employment branding and recruiting source.

Develop a set of soft skills necessary for a college professor’s job.

Put together a structured interview for hiring assistant managers at a large retail store.

How would you do a complete background investigation on applicants to minimize concerns about negligent hiring?

Your Accounting Manager has decided that a behavioral interview to select accountants will solve many hiring problems. What can you tell the manager about this type of interview and whether it is likely to be effective? Check www.job-interview.net and other sources to gather information.

Your insurance company recently entered into a business contract with a company in the financial industry that requires extensive background checks for all your existing employees and future applicants who will be doing work associated with the contract. Previously your company conducted only employment verification checks in the hiring process. The management team discussions have raised questions and concerns about issues that need to be considered as the company develops and implements a more extensive background screening protocol. Resources to help you identify issues, best practices, and requirements can be found at www.hire-safe.com/Employment_Background_Check_Guidelines.pdf.
What concerns does your company need to consider in following background check guidelines?

Your insurance company recently entered into a business contract with a company in the financial industry that requires extensive background checks for all your existing employees and future applicants who will be doing work associated with the contract. Previously your company conducted only employment verification checks in the hiring process. The management team discussions have raised questions and concerns about issues that need to be considered as the company develops and implements a more extensive background screening protocol. Resources to help you identify issues, best practices, and requirements can be found at www.hire-safe.com/Employment_Background_Check_Guidelines.pdf.
Discuss with the management team the steps your company needs to take to ensure that it complies with the Fair Credit Reporting Act.

Megan’s Law provides that all states are now required to have all convicted sex offenders register so that residents are aware of their presence in a neighborhood. The law is named for Megan Kanka, a 7-year-old who was raped and murdered by a twice-convicted pedophile who moved to her New Jersey neighborhood. He lured her to his house with the promise of showing her a puppy. Megan’s Law raises issues around the use of criminal registries in hiring and employee management. Several issues are involved for an employer in dealing with Megan’s Law and employees. For example, in Michigan, the Attorney General released the names of 200 registered sex offenders who had been using MySpace (some in violation of the terms of their parole). Some employers found that the list included the names of some of their employees and had to confront the very real problem of what to do about it. The presence of a convicted sex offender presents conflicting obligations and concerns. Employers want (and need) to protect other employees and customers from harm based on negligent hiring and negligent retention issues. But is this person a threat? What if the person has an exemplary work record? In some states, it is illegal for employers to use any information found on the Megan’s Law website for purposes of employment. Perhaps the easiest way to proceed would be to keep from hiring convicts in the first place, but federal law limits an employer’s ability to do that. The EEOC says that the use of conviction records in employment decisions has an adverse impact on African American and Hispanic males. Using a blanket prohibition against convicts in hiring may allow a plaintiff to demonstrate a disproportionate impact on protected categories of applicants. Is an employer required to check the registry? It depends on the job. Generally the answer is “no,” but for certain jobs there is an obligation to check. Those jobs include positions in health care facilities and hospitals (e.g., nurse or aide), day cares and schools (e.g., teacher or aide), security (e.g., guard), social and mental health facilities (e.g., social or mental health worker), taxi and bus services (e.g., drivers), and recreational facilities (e.g., fitness trainer). Virtually any position with access to potential victims is a job with the potential for problems. Two of the names on the Michigan list presented some difficult management decisions. In one office equipment company, a 34-year-old office equipment repair technician was paroled after serving a 7-year sentence for attacking women on jogging paths. His previous employer offered to rehire him as a field technician who would travel to other offices to repair business machines, as he had been an excellent employee with outstanding repair skills. In the other case, a new employee was found to be on the list. He was an African American who had served 10 years for child pornography possession. He is driving a school bus for a church and has thus far been a model employee, although he did not list his conviction on the application form even though the question was asked.60
1. Discuss what a manager should do in each of the two Michigan cases.
2. What circumstances might lead you to make different decisions in different cases under Megan’s Law?

Compare and contrast the two selection strategies used by the organizations discussed in the case.

What other strategies might help organizations better utilize and manage selection activities?

Identify training needs for a group of new salespeople in a high-end jewelry store.

Why is evaluating training an important part of strategic training?

Develop an orientation checklist based on one first-day session and a second session of 4 hours each to cover 30-days later.

Make a briefing for division managers showing the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning and how to “blend” it with other teaching techniques. Use websites, including www.astd.org.

Due to rapid growth of your technology company, the executive team has asked HR to develop an internal training program. The purpose of the program is to help employees recently promoted to supervisory positions develop the leadership skill sets they need to be successful as supervisors. This will be the first formal training program for your small company. As part of the process, you want to consider the learning styles of the new supervisors. To assist you in developing a successful, results-oriented program, review various training websites, including www.agelesslearner.com.
To meet the needs of the varied learning styles and maximize the learning potential of the participants, what training techniques should be implemented?

Due to rapid growth of your technology company, the executive team has asked HR to develop an internal training program. The purpose of the program is to help employees recently promoted to supervisory positions develop the leadership skill sets they need to be successful as supervisors. This will be the first formal training program for your small company. As part of the process, you want to consider the learning styles of the new supervisors. To assist you in developing a successful, results-oriented program, review various training websites, including www.agelesslearner.com.
Identify the content topics that you will recommend be included in the program to ensure the development of successful leaders.

New employees at Sun Microsystems begin their orientation sessions after being hired with a computer game. It is part of an attempt to integrate new people, improve the image of the company, get feedback, and start training. Looking over the shoulder of a new employee, one would see the person playing a computer game called “Dawn of the Shadow Spectors,” battling evil forces that are trying to destroy Sun’s network. Before Sun changed its orientation program, an employee’s first day at work consisted mostly of filling out paperwork, as in most companies. Some new employees waited 2 weeks to get e-mail, and people who worked remotely sometimes waited weeks or months before meeting their managers. The chief learning officer at Sun said, “We wanted to make a better first impression,” unlike that made on an employee’s first day if the company/manager is not ready and the person just sits there. That can make a bad impression that is lasting. Now at Sun the onboarding starts as soon as a person accepts a job. The new employee logs on to the company’s new hire website and learns about the company by playing video games. The person sees a welcome video from the CEO and connects with other employees via social networks. New employees also fill out their W-4s, I-9s, and other paperwork on the website. Sun, which has about 34,000 employees, believes orientation should start the moment a person is hired and continue until the person is productive. A Houston-based company, El Paso Corporation, which employs about 5,000, has a different onboarding process. New hires attend a first-day orientation and then another a month later. During their first week at the company, they get an e-mail with links to everything from ordering business cards to joining the credit union. Before the new system was instituted, employees sometimes waited to even get a computer. One company official noted that new employees “were here but just sitting around because they didn’t have the tools to work.” Now they have a workspace, computer, and network access on their first day. An advertising agency in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, takes yet a different approach. Zimmerman Advertising, which has about 1,000 employees, wants employees to understand the company, so new hires log on and learn from the new hire website what the company does, its client philosophy, and about its leadership. Then they meet for an hour with the CEO who talks about how he built the company. New hires get a 30-, 60-, and 90-day training checklist that must be completed on time and signed by their supervisor. They also have an opportunity to provide feedback via the website. Modern onboarding systems help new employees understand what the company is all about so they are prepared to integrate into it, says Zimmerman’s Vice President of HR.
1. The case introduces three companies of very different sizes with three different onboarding approaches. What differences do you see in their approaches? What similarities?
2. Are there important ideas missing from all three approaches? If so, what are they?
3. Which approach sounds best to you? Why?

Discuss how these hotels are using strategic and performance consulting approach to developing training efforts?

Identify how the effectiveness of Ritz-Carlton’s Mystique program might be measured several years later.

How does one go about controlling workers’ compensation costs, and why is that important?

What should an employer do when facing an OSHA inspection?

As the HR manager of a distribution and warehouse firm with 600 employees, you plan to discuss a company wellness program at an executive staff meeting next week. The topics to cover include what a wellness program is, how it can benefit the company and employees, and the process for establishing it. To aid in developing your presentation to the executives, consult the website www.welcoa.org and other applicable websites you can locate.

What should be included in disaster planning for a big employer in New York City that is concerned about terrorism attacks that might shut down the company and part of the city?

Due to an increase in recent employee layoffs because of economic conditions and the increased risk of workplace violence, as well as an increase in domestic restraining orders that several employees have recently obtained against former spouses, company management has decided it is time to take a proactive position and develop a workplace violence action plan. There are many factors to consider, as your company has three locations and more than 500 employees. For information to assist you in identifying workplace violence categories and prevention strategies, visit the website at www.fbi.gov/publications/violence.pdf.
Which workplace violence categories are of most concern to your company?

Due to an increase in recent employee layoffs because of economic conditions and the increased risk of workplace violence, as well as an increase in domestic restraining orders that several employees have recently obtained against former spouses, company management has decided it is time to take a proactive position and develop a workplace violence action plan. There are many factors to consider, as your company has three locations and more than 500 employees. For information to assist you in identifying workplace violence categories and prevention strategies, visit the website at www.fbi.gov/publications/violence.pdf.
What steps and provisions do you need toinclude in your workplace violence action plan?

Policing the workplace used to mean reminding employees about personal phone calls and making sure that paper clips did not disappear. But with the computer revolution at work that began in the 1990s, checking on employee behavior at work became considerably more technical. The threats to data security, not to mention other threats for
potential lawsuits (e.g., sexual harassment), are now more complex as well. New federal laws pertaining to financial and medical records have put increased pressure on companies to protect their data. But auditing user privacy cannot be done without input and buy-in from HR, notes a senior consultant with an IT security firm in Massachusetts.
Whether the concern is in appropriate Internet usage or transferring files outside the company, HR may be the first to learn of a problem. Although the possibility of outside attacks on the computer network is a real problem, the threat of internal security breaches is even greater. The growing insider problem and the sheer volume of electronic messages coming into and out of a company (a large company easily processes one million e-mails per day) present HR with a challenge on data security policy development, implementation, and enforcement.
HR may be asked to “identify personnel at risk” who might require more stringent watching, such as people who are sending out résumés. In many cases, people leaving organizations take advantage of the opportunity to take intellectual property with them. Security software identifying employee behaviors will always require HR involvement. Policy violations, banned sites, and stealing identity data are examples. Companies look very bad when sensitive customer or employee data are stolen or leaked to the public. Employees can easily resent the security measures and see the security as “Big Brother” watching. However, the growth of identity theft and spyware means that more employees have been personally affected by data security and are more likely to recognize the need for their employers’ data security efforts.
At Spherion, HR publishes a “computer and telecom resources policy” that specifies appropriate usage and a code of conduct. Employees must read and sign the policy. The company also has an IT Risk Team with members from HR, accounting, internal auditing, and other departments.
There are, of course, attempts at a purely technical solution to the problem. But it is clear that HR must have a role in balancing employee privacy with company risk management. A simple act, such as a bank’s loan officer burning credit information to a CD and selling the data to another bank, can undo all the technical protections. The human side—developing a policy, communicating it, helping people understand why it is needed, and applying it fairly—is the big piece for HR.

1. How would you communicate a data security policy that required software checking of
employees’ emails?

2. What elements should a data security policy for a bank include?


Policing the workplace used to mean reminding employees about personal phone calls and making sure that paper clips did not disappear. But with the computer revolution at work that began in the 1990s, checking on employee behavior at work became considerably more technical. The threats to data security, not to mention other threats for
potential lawsuits (e.g., sexual harassment), are now more complex as well. New federal laws pertaining to financial and medical records have put increased pressure on companies to protect their data. But auditing user privacy cannot be done without input and buy-in from HR, notes a senior consultant with an IT security firm in Massachusetts.
Whether the concern is in appropriate Internet usage or transferring files outside the company, HR may be the first to learn of a problem. Although the possibility of outside attacks on the computer network is a real problem, the threat of internal security breaches is even greater. The growing insider problem and the sheer volume of electronic messages coming into and out of a company (a large company easily processes one million e-mails per day) present HR with a challenge on data security policy development, implementation, and enforcement.
HR may be asked to “identify personnel at risk” who might require more stringent watching, such as people who are sending out résumés. In many cases, people leaving organizations take advantage of the opportunity to take intellectual property with them. Security software identifying employee behaviors will always require HR involvement. Policy violations, banned sites, and stealing identity data are examples. Companies look very bad when sensitive customer or employee data are stolen or leaked to the public. Employees can easily resent the security measures and see the security as “Big Brother” watching. However, the growth of identity theft and spyware means that more employees have been personally affected by data security and are more likely to recognize the need for their employers’ data security efforts.
At Spherion, HR publishes a “computer and telecom resources policy” that specifies appropriate usage and a code of conduct. Employees must read and sign the policy. The company also has an IT Risk Team with members from HR, accounting, internal auditing, and other departments.
There are, of course, attempts at a purely technical solution to the problem. But it is clear that HR must have a role in balancing employee privacy with company risk management. A simple act, such as a bank’s loan officer burning credit information to a CD and selling the data to another bank, can undo all the technical protections. The human side—developing a policy, communicating it, helping people understand why it is needed, and applying it fairly—is the big piece for HR.56

Employee data theft most frequently occurs with new employees or when an employee has given notice and is leaving. How would you deal with these two very different issues?

Identify how these two firms have incorporated elements of safety management and health promotion described in this chapter into their programs.

Discuss how the reductions in injuries can be used to justify the expenditures on the various programs in NorthStar and Cox.

Identify how the issues of due process and just cause are linked to employer disciplinary actions.

Discuss the following statement: “Even though efforts to restrict employees’ free speech at work may be permissible, such efforts raise troubling questions affecting individual rights.”

Give some examples of how technology is creating employer/employee rights and policy issues. Then suggest some possible actions that may be needed.

Assume that as the HR manager, you have decided to prepare some guidelines for supervisors to use when they have to discipline employees. Gather the information needed, using Internet resources such as www.blr.com and www.workforce.com for sample policies and other details. Then prepare a guide for supervisors on implementing both positive and progressive discipline.

In developing a company workplace violence prevention program, management has become aware of concerns regarding a drug-free workplace. Several employees have recently come to HR requesting a leave of absence to enter a drug rehabilitation program. The managers were not aware of the substance abuse issues relating to these employees. Consequently, management recognizes that a drugfree workplace program will help improve workplace safety and health. These programs also play an important role in fostering safer and drug-free families and communities. To assist HR in developing a drug-free workplace program, visit this website at www.dol.gov/workingpartners.
What are the key components that should be included in your company’s drug-free workplace program to best meet the needs of both employees and the company?

In developing a company workplace violence prevention program, management has become aware of concerns regarding a drug-free workplace. Several employees have recently come to HR requesting a leave of absence to enter a drug rehabilitation program. The managers were not aware of the substance abuse issues relating to these employees. Consequently, management recognizes that a drugfree workplace program will help improve workplace safety and health. These programs also play an important role in fostering safer and drug-free families and communities. To assist HR in developing a drug-free workplace program, visit this website at www.dol.gov/workingpartners.
Identify the steps a manager should take if an employee’s actions create a suspicion that the employee has reported to work under the influence of substances.

Work-related responsibilities can be challenging for many employees, managers, and executives for numerous reasons. It is not uncommon for all of these people to face challenges in balancing personal and work-life demands, as well as extensive job demands. But the pressure can be increased when “bullying” by bosses or employees is present.
Bullying in workplaces occurs when people are insulted, frightened, pressured strongly by comments, or face numerous other questionable actions by others. The occurrence of bullying is extensive, according to some surveys. For instance, of more than 50 million workers surveyed, about 37% of them said they had been bullied at work. Many of the incidents were by executives, managers, or supervisors who were their bosses. Examples of bullying by bosses included criticizing employees personally with insults or yelling, and making excessive demands. In a smaller study in San Francisco, 45% of 1,000 employees said they had worked for bullying bosses. This illustrates that one important issue of HR policies is how to deal with abusive managers and supervisors.
The differentiation between a demanding, intense boss and one who is a bully is how behavior, comments, and actions are seen by employees. If a manager demands high performance of all workers, rather than just selected ones, this may not be seen as bullying. However, when a boss uses power and aggressiveness to consistently insult and irritate a few people, the boss’s actions may be seen as inappropriate. Conduct that can be seen as bullying includes:
• Frequent emotional comments and outbursts
• Use of “power” for self-interest rather than for job- and employer-related issues
• Aggressively demanding tasks and results from subordinates and other managers
A growing HR legal concern is if workforce bullying violates the civil rights of protected class members. Women, racial minorities, older people, individuals with disabilities, and others may be able to file equal employment legal complaints. More than a dozen states have introduced legislation to address bullying through “healthy workplace” requirements. Some lawsuits have been won by workers who have been bullied. For instance, an Indiana hospital employee won an award because of a surgeon who communicated through screaming, cussing, clenched fists, and by other inappropriate means.
However, bullying is not limited to that done by bosses. Employees can be disciplined for how they treat customers, clients, coworkers, and even their managers. Examples include inappropriate or nasty comments, gestures, and other actions.
It is important that employers adopt and reinforce antibullying codes of conduct and policies. Additionally, training all bosses and workers about inappropriate bullying actions can help to reduce incidences of bullying. HR professionals should be proactive and take seriously individuals’ complaints of bullying-related actions. Bullying has always occurred in workplaces, but now it has grown into another important HR employer/employee rights and responsibilities issue.

1. Based on your work experiences, identify examples of bullying that you have observed
by managers, supervisors, and/or coworkers. Discuss what was and was not done, both appropriately and inappropriately, by your employers.

2. If you were an HR professional doing training, what content and policies regarding bullying might you present to employees and managers?

Do you agree that the company is guilty of illegal actions? Why or why not?

Discuss the following statement: “If management gets a union, it deserves one.”

Suppose a coworker just brought you a union leaflet urging employees to sign an authorization card. What may happen from this point on?

As the HR manager, you have heard rumors about potential efforts to unionize your warehouse employees. Use the www.genelevine .com website to develop a set of guidelines for supervisors if they are asked questions by employees about unionization as part of a “union prevention” approach.

Public-sector unions now account for more than half of union members, while the private sector accounts for less than half. Why has this change occurred?

Employees in the shipping department have requested the implementation of a “suggestion box” system to help them bring their concerns to the attention of management and to help improve labor relations. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of such a system.

If company management determines that the “suggestion box” request will be more cumbersome than helpful, what are some alternative solutions that management can suggest to the employees?

Unions sometimes compete to represent workers, and that has been the case in Colorado with the Denver Sheriff’s Department. With budget cuts and tightening discipline, about 125 of the 760 deputies have turned to the Teamsters Union. What they have gotten is Ed Bagwell, Local 17’s director of the public service division—a stocky and aggressive person.
Bagwell is aggressive. During one meeting, a supervisor looked at his Teamster’s shirt and said, “Nice bowling shirt.” Bagwell responded by looking at the supervisor’s uniform and remarking, “Nice clown suit.” After that, the fight was on, and the meeting became so tense that the department ended up closing the meeting and turning the matter over to internal affairs. During another meeting, Bagwell got so mad he invited a supervisor outside. His behavior so offended an assistant city attorney that the attorney wrote to Bagwell’s boss about “unnecessarily hostile and inappropriate behavior.” At yet another meeting, when Bagwell was asked to tone it down, he roared, “You have no idea how aggressive I can be!”
Such behavior has had the city attorney’s office all atwitter, but it seems to resonate with
the sheriff’s deputies. A group of those deputies want the Teamsters to take over for the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP), which has handled collective bargaining for the deputies since 1993. The momentum is with the Teamsters, which signed up more than 100 deputies in a recent year.
The president of the FOP thinks his union will stave off the Teamsters, who will need votes from more than half of the 700 deputies before the Teamsters can represent them. The Teamsters have insinuated that the existing union is not tough enough, according to the FOP, but the FOP president disagrees. “I think we have in case after case shown that we are willing to fight what we think is a fight,” he said.
Two deputies who have recently switched to the Teamsters disagree with the FOP. One deputy who is accused of lying about what he saw in a discipline case involving another deputy has chosen the Teamsters over the FOP to defend him in his disciplinary hearings. The other has switched to the Teamsters because he feels an outside organization will be more likely to challenge the status quo. He says, “It’s time for a change.”

1. Is it good or bad for one union to challenge another to represent these deputies, and why?

2. Discuss whether the aggressive approach of the Teamsters is appropriate and legal under the circumstances.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of Wal-Mart’s aggressive union prevention efforts.

Why are benefits strategically important to employers, and what are some key strategic considerations?

Discuss the following statement: “Health care costs are out of control in the United States, and increasing conflicts between employers and employees are likely as employers try to reduce their health benefits costs.”

Assume that as an HR staff member, you have been asked to research consumer-driven health plans because your employer is considering implementing one. Go to a leading benefits information resource, Employee Benefit News, at www.benefitnews.com, and identify the elements of a successful CDH plan and some examples of firms that use such a plan.

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