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Thallium, a neurotoxin, is the heaviest member of Group 13 of the periodic table and is found most usually in the +1 oxidation state. Aluminum, which causes anaemia and dementia, is also a member of the group but its chemical properties are dominated by the +3 oxidation state. Examine this issue by plotting the first, second, and third ionization energies for the Group 13 elements against atomic number. Explain the trends you observe Hints. The third ionization energy, 13, is the minimum energy needed to remove an electron from the doubly charged cation: E2+ (g) → 1 E3+ (g) + e- (g), 13= E (E3+) – E (E2+). For data, see the links to databases of atomic properties provided in the text's web site.
Compare the approximations built into valence-bond theory and molecular-orbital theory.
Distinguish between the Pauling and Mulliken electro negativity scales.
Discuss the approximations built into the Huckel method.
Use concepts of molecular orbital theory to describe the biochemical reactivity of O2, N2, and NO.
Give the ground-state electron configurations of
(a) H-2
(b) N2, and
(c) Oz.
Give the ground-state electron configurations of
(a) CIF,
(b) CS, and
(c) 0-2.
Which of the molecules N2, NO, 02, C2, F2, and CN would you expect to be stabilized by
(a) The addition of an electron to form AB-,
(b) The removal of an electron to form AB+?
Sketch the molecular orbital energy level diagrams for BrCI and deduce its ground-state electron configurations. Is BrCl likely to have a shorter bond length than BrCl-?
Arrange the species 0+2, 02, 0-2, O2-2 in order of increasing bond length.
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