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In Section 11.5 we defined the vapor pressure of a liquid in terms of an equilibrium.
(a) Write the equation representing the equilibrium between liquid water and water vapor and the corresponding expression for Kp?
(b) By using data in Appendix B, give the value of Kp for this reaction at 30 oC?
(c) What is the value of Kp for any liquid in equilibrium with its vapor at the normal boiling point of the liquid?
Water molecules in the atmosphere can form hydrogenbonded dimers, (H2O)2. The presence of these dimers is thought to be important in the nucleation of ice crystals in the atmosphere and in the formation of acid rain.
(a) Using VSEPR theory, draw the structure of a water dimer, using dashed lines to indicate intermolecular interactions.
(b) What kind of intermolecular forces are involved in water dimer formation?
(c) The Kp for water dimer formation in the gas phase is 0.050 at 300 K and 0.020 at 350 K. Is water dimer formation endothermic or exothermic?
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