GET Oscillations Mechanical Waves TEXTBOOK SOLUTIONS
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A ball dropped from a height of 4.00 m makes a perfectly elastic collision with the ground. Assuming no mechanical energy is lost due to air resistance,
(a) Show that the ensuing motion is periodic and
(b) Determine the period of the motion.
(c) Is the motion simple harmonic? Explain.
In an engine, a piston oscillates with simple harmonic motion so that its position varies according to the expression x = (5.00 cm) cos (2t + /6) where x is in centimeters and t is in seconds. At t = 0, find
(a) The position of the piston,
(b) Its velocity, and
(c) Its acceleration.
(d) Find the period and amplitude of the motion.
The position of a particle is given by the expression x = (4.00 m) cos (3.00)t % )), where x is in meters and t is in seconds. Determine
(a) The frequency and period of the motion,
(b) The amplitude of the motion,
(c) The phase constant, and
(d) The position of the particle at t = 0.250 s.
(a) A hanging spring stretches by 35.0 cm when an object of mass 450 g is hung on it at rest. In this situation, we define its position as x = 0. The object is pulled down an additional 18.0 cm and released from rest to oscillate without friction. What is its position x at a time 84.4 s later?
(b) What If? A hanging spring stretches by 35.5 cm when an object of mass 440 g is hung on it at rest. We define this new position as x = 0. This object is also pulled down an additional 18.0 cm and released from rest to oscillate without friction. Find its position 84.4 s later.
(c) Why are the answers to (a) and (b) different by such a large percentage when the data are so similar? Does this circumstance reveal a fundamental difficulty in calculating the future?
(d) Find the distance traveled by the vibrating object in part (a).
(e) Find the distance traveled by the object in part (b).
A particle moving along the x axis in simple harmonic motion starts from its equilibrium position, the origin, at t = 0 and moves to the right. The amplitude of its motion is 2.00 cm, and the frequency is 1.50 Hz.
(a) Show that the position of the particle is given by x = (2.00cm) sin (3.00 t) Determine
(b) The maximum speed and the earliest time (t > 0) at which the particle has this speed,
(c) The maximum acceleration and the earliest time (t > 0) at which the particle has this acceleration, and
(d) The total distance traveled between t = 0 and t = 1.00 s.
The initial position, velocity, and acceleration of an object moving in simple harmonic motion are xi, vi, and ai; the angular frequency of oscillation is w.
(a) Show that the position and velocity of the object for all time can be written as
x (t) = x i cos wt + (vi/w) sin wt
v (t) = ─ xiw sin wt + vi cos wt
(b) If the amplitude of the motion is A, show that v2 ─ ax = vi2 ─ aixi = w2A2
A simple harmonic oscillator takes 12.0 s to undergo five complete vibrations. Find
(a) The period of its motion,
(b) The frequency in hertz, and
(c) The angular frequency in radians per second.
A vibration sensor, used in testing a washing machine, consists of a cube of aluminum 1.50 cm on edge mounted on one end of a strip of spring steel (like a hacksaw blade) that lies in a vertical plane. The mass of the strip is small compared to that of the cube, but the length of the strip is large compared to the size of the cube. The other end of the strip is clamped to the frame of the washing machine, which is not operating. A horizontal force of 1.43 N applied to the cube is required to hold it 2.75 cm away from its equilibrium position. If the cube is released, what is its frequency of vibration?
A 7.00-kg object is hung from the bottom end of a vertical spring fastened to an overhead beam. The object is set into vertical oscillations having a period of 2.60 s. Find the force constant of the spring.
A piston in a gasoline engine is in simple harmonic motion. If the extremes of its position relative to its center point are ± 5.00 cm, find the maximum velocity and acceleration of the piston when the engine is running at the rate of 3 600 rev/min.
A 0.500-kg object attached to a spring with a force constant of 8.00 N/m vibrates in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 10.0 cm. Calculate
(a) The maximum value of its speed and acceleration,
(b) The speed and acceleration when the object is 6.00 cm from the equilibrium position, and
(c) The time interval required for the object to move from x = 0 to x = 8.00 cm.
A 1.00-kg glider attached to a spring with a force constant of 25.0 N/m oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless air track. At t = 0 the glider is released from rest at x = ─3.00 cm. (That is, the spring is compressed by 3.00 cm.) Find
(a) The period of its motion,
(b) The maximum values of its speed and acceleration, and
(c) The position, velocity, and acceleration as functions of time.
A 1.00-kg object is attached to a horizontal spring. The spring is initially stretched by 0.100 m, and the object is released from rest there. It proceeds to move without friction. The next time the speed of the object is zero is 0.500 s later. What is the maximum speed of the object?
A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular frequency '. The spring is suspended from the ceiling of an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car) as the car descends at a constant speed v. The car then stops suddenly.
(a) With what amplitude does the particle oscillate?
(b) What is the equation of motion for the particle? (Choose the upward direction to be positive.)
A block of unknown mass is attached to a spring with a spring constant of 6.50 N/m and undergoes simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 10.0 cm. When the block is halfway between its equilibrium position and the end point, its speed is measured to be 30.0 cm/s. Calculate (a) the mass of the block,
(b) the period of the motion, and (c) the maximum acceleration of the block.
A 200-g block is attached to a horizontal spring and executes simple harmonic motion with a period of 0.250 s. If the total energy of the system is 2.00 J, find
(a) The force constant of the spring and
(b) The amplitude of the motion.
An automobile having a mass of 1 000 kg is driven into a brick wall in a safety test. The bumper behaves like a spring of force constant 5.00, 106 N/m and compresses 3.16 cm as the car is brought to rest. What was the speed of the car before impact, assuming that no mechanical energy is lost during impact with the wall?
A block–spring system oscillates with an amplitude of 3.50 cm. If the spring constant is 250 N/m and the mass of the block is 0.500 kg, determine
(a) The mechanical energy of the system,
(b) The maximum speed of the block, and
(c) The maximum acceleration.
A 50.0-g object connected to a spring with a force constant of 35.0 N/m oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless surface with an amplitude of 4.00 cm. Find
(a) The total energy of the system and
(b) The speed of the object when the position is 1.00 cm. Find
(c) The kinetic energy and
(d) The potential energy when the position is 3.00 cm.
A 2.00-kg object is attached to a spring and placed on a horizontal, smooth surface. A horizontal force of 20.0 N is required to hold the object at rest when it is pulled 0.200 m from its equilibrium position (the origin of the x axis). The object is now released from rest with an initial position of xi = 0.200 m, and it subsequently undergoes simple harmonic oscillations. Find
(a) The force constant of the spring,
(b) The frequency of the oscillations, and
(c) The maximum speed of the object. Where does this maximum speed occur?
(d) Find the maximum acceleration of the object. Where does it occur?
(e) Find the total energy of the oscillating system. Find
(f) The speed and
(g) The acceleration of the object when its position is equal to one third of the maximum value.
The amplitude of a system moving in simple harmonic motion is doubled. Determine the change in (a) the total energy, (b) the maximum speed, (c) the maximum acceleration, and (d) the period.
A 65.0-kg bungee jumper steps off a bridge with a light bungee cord tied to herself and to the bridge (Figure P15.22). The unstretched length of the cord is 11.0 m. She reaches the bottom of her motion 36.0 m below the bridge before bouncing back. Her motion can be separated into an 11.0-m free fall and a 25.0-m section of simple harmonic oscillation.
(a) For what time interval is she in free fall?
(b) Use the principle of conservation of energy to find the spring constant of the bungee cord.
(c) What is the location of the equilibrium point where the spring force balances the gravitational force acting on the jumper? Note that this point is taken as the origin in our mathematical description of simple harmonic oscillation.
(d) What is the angular frequency of the oscillation?
(e) What time interval is required for the cord to stretch by 25.0 m?
(f) What is the total time interval for the entire 36.0-m drop?
A particle executes simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 3.00 cm. At what position does its speed equal half its maximum speed?
A cart attached to a spring with constant 3.24 N/m vibrates with position given by x = (5.00 cm) cos (3.60t rad/s).
(a) During the first cycle, for 0 < t < 1.75 s, just when is the system’s potential energy changing most rapidly into kinetic energy?
(b) What is the maximum rate of energy transformation?
While riding behind a car traveling at 3.00 m/s, you notice that one of the car’s tires has a small hemispherical bump on its rim, as in Figure P15.25.
(a) Explain why the bump, from your viewpoint behind the car, executes simple harmonic motion.
(b) If the radii of the car’s tires are 0.300 m, what is the bump’s period of oscillation?
Consider the simplified single-piston engine in Figure P15.26. If the wheel rotates with constant angular speed, explain why the piston rod oscillates in simple harmonic motion.
A man enters a tall tower, needing to know its height. He notes that a long pendulum extends from the ceiling almost to the floor and that its period is 12.0 s.
(a) How tall is the tower?
(b) What If? If this pendulum is taken to the Moon, where the free-fall acceleration is 1.67 m/s2, what is its period there?
A “second’s pendulum” is one that moves through its equilibrium position once each second. (The period of the pendulum is precisely 2 s.) The length of a second’s pendulum is 0.992 7 m at Tokyo, Japan and 0.994 2 m at Cambridge, England. What is the ratio of the free-fall accelerations at these two locations?
A rigid steel frame above a street intersection supports standard traffic lights, each of which is hinged to hang immediately below the frame. A gust of wind sets a light swinging in a vertical plane. Find the order of magnitude of its period. State the quantities you take as data and their values.
The angular position of a pendulum is represented by the equation θ = (0.320 rad) cos wt, where is in radians and w = 4.43 rad/s. Determine the period and length of the pendulum.
A simple pendulum has a mass of 0.250 kg and a length of 1.00 m. It is displaced through an angle of 15.0° and then released. What are (a) the maximum speed,
(b) The maximum angular acceleration, and
(c) The maximum restoring force? What If? Solve this problem by using the simple harmonic motion model for the motion of the pendulum, and then solve the problem more precisely by using more general principles.
A simple pendulum is 5.00 m long.
(a) What is the period of small oscillations for this pendulum if it is located in an elevator accelerating upward at 5.00 m/s2?
(b) What is its period if the elevator is accelerating downward at 5.00 m/s2?
(c) What is the period of this pendulum if it is placed in a truck that is accelerating horizontally at 5.00 m/s2?
A particle of mass m slides without friction inside a hemispherical bowl of radius R. Show that, if it starts from rest with a small displacement from equilibrium, the particle moves in simple harmonic motion with an angular frequency equal to that of a simple pendulum of length R. That is, w = √g/R.
A small object is attached to the end of a string to form a simple pendulum. The period of its harmonic motion is measured for small angular displacements and three lengths, each time clocking the motion with a stopwatch for 50 oscillations. For lengths of 1.000 m, 0.750 m, and 0.500 m, total times of 99.8 s, 86.6 s, and 71.1 s are measured for 50 oscillations.
(a) Determine the period of motion for each length.
(b) Determine the mean value of g obtained from these three independent measurements, and compare it with the accepted value.
(c) Plot T 2 versus L, and obtain a value for g from the slope of your best-fit straight-line graph. Compare this value with that obtained in part (b).
A physical pendulum in the form of a planar body moves in simple harmonic motion with a frequency of 0.450 Hz. If the pendulum has a mass of 2.20 kg and the pivot is located 0.350 m from the center of mass, determine the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the pivot point.
A very light rigid rod with a length of 0.500 m extends straight out from one end of a meter stick. The stick is suspended from a pivot at the far end of the rod and is set into oscillation.
(a) Determine the period of oscillation.
Suggestion: Use the parallel-axis theorem from Section 10.5.
(b) By what percentage does the period differ from the period of a simple pendulum 1.00 m long?
Consider the physical pendulum of Figure 15.18.
(a) If it’s moment of inertia about an axis passing through its center of mass and parallel to the axis passing through its pivot point is ICM
Show that its period is where d is the distance between the pivot point and center of mass.
(b) Show that the period has a minimum value when d satisfies md2 = ICM.
A torsional pendulum is formed by taking a meter stick of mass 2.00 kg, and attaching to its center a wire. With its upper end clamped, the vertical wire supports the stick as the stick turns in a horizontal plane. If the resulting period is 3.00 minutes, what is the torsion constant for the wire?
A clock balance wheel (Fig P15.39) has a period of oscillation of 0.250 s. The wheel is constructed so that its mass of 20.0 g is concentrated around a rim of radius 0.500 cm. What are (a) The wheel’s moment of inertia and
(b) The torsion constant of the attached spring?
Show that the time rate of change of mechanical energy for a damped, undriven oscillator is given by dE/dt = ─bv2 and hence is always negative. Proceed as follows: Differentiate the expression for the mechanical energy of an oscillator, E = ½ mv2 = ½ kx 2, and use Equation 15.31.
A pendulum with a length of 1.00 m is released from an initial angle of 15.0°. After 1 000 s, its amplitude has been reduced by friction to 5.50°. What is the value of b/2m?
Show that Equation 15.32 is a solution of Equation 15.31 provided that b2 < 4mk.
A 10.6-kg object oscillates at the end of a vertical spring that has a spring constant of 2.05, 104 N/m. The effect of air resistance is represented by the damping coefficient b = 3.00 N ∙ s/m.
(a) Calculate the frequency of the damped oscillation.
(b) By what percentage does the amplitude of the oscillation decrease in each cycle?
(c) Find the time interval that elapses while the energy of the system drops to 5.00% of its initial value.
The front of her sleeper wet from teething, a baby rejoices in the day by crowing and bouncing up and down in her crib. Her mass is 12.5 kg, and the crib mattress can be modeled as a light spring with force constant 4.30 kN/m
(a) The baby soon learns to bounce with maximum amplitude and minimum effort by bending her knees at what frequency?
(b) She learns to use the mattress as a trampoline—losing contact with it for part of each cycle—when her amplitude exceeds what value?
A 2.00-kg object attached to a spring moves without friction and is driven by an external force given by F = (3.00 N) sin (2) πt). If the force constant of the spring is 20.0 N/m, determine
(a) The period and (b) The amplitude of the motion
Considering an undamped, forced oscillator (b = 0), show that Equation 15.35 is a solution of Equation 15.34, with an amplitude given by Equation 15.36.
A weight of 40.0 N is suspended from a spring that has a force constant of 200 N/m. The system is undamped and is subjected to a harmonic driving force of frequency 10.0 Hz, resulting in a forced-motion amplitude of 2.00 cm. Determine the maximum value of the driving force.
Damping is negligible for a 0.150-kg object hanging from a light 6.30-N/m spring. A sinusoidal force with an amplitude of 1.70 N drives the system. At what frequency will the force make the object vibrate with an amplitude of 0.440 m?
You are a research biologist. You take your emergency pager along to a fine restaurant. You switch the small pager to vibrate instead of beep, and you put it into a side pocket of your suit coat. The arm of your chair presses the light cloth against your body at one spot. Fabric with a length of 8.21 cm hangs freely below that spot, with the pager at the bottom. A coworker urgently needs instructions and calls you from your laboratory. The motion of the pager makes the hanging part of your coat swing back and forth with remarkably large amplitude. The waiter and nearby diners notice immediately and fall silent, your daughter pipes up and says, “Daddy, look! Your cockroaches must have gotten out again!” Find the frequency at which your pager vibrates.
Four people, each with a mass of 72.4 kg, are in a car with a mass of 1 130 kg. An earthquake strikes. The driver manages to pull off the road and stop, as the vertical oscillations of the ground surface make the car bounce up and down on its suspension springs. When the frequency of the shaking is 1.80 Hz, the car exhibits a maximum amplitude of vibration. The earthquake ends, and the four people leave the car as fast as they can. By what distance does the car’s undamaged suspension lift the car body as the people get out?
A small ball of mass M is attached to the end of a uniform rod of equal mass M and length L that is pivoted at the top (Fig. P15.51)
(a) Determine the tensions in the rod at the pivot and at the point P when the system is stationary.
(b) Calculate the period of oscillation for small displacements from equilibrium, and determine this period for L = 2.00 m. (Suggestions: Model the object at the end of the rod as a particle and use Eq. 15.28.)
An object of mass m1 = 9.00 kg is in equilibrium while connected to a light spring of constant k = 100 N/m that is fastened to a wall as shown in Figure P15.52a. A second object, m2 = 7.00 kg, is slowly pushed up against m1, compressing the spring by the amount A = 0.200 m, (see Figure P15.52b)
The system is then released, and both objects start moving to the right on the frictionless surface.
(a) When m1 reaches the equilibrium point, m2 loses contact with m1 (see Fig. P15.5c) and moves to the right with speed v.
Determine the value of v.
(b) How far apart are the objects when the spring is fully stretched for the first time D in Fig. P15.52d) (Suggestion: First determine the period of oscillation and the amplitude of the m1–spring system after m2 lose contact with m1.)
A large block P executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with a frequency f = 1.50 Hz. Block B rests on it, as shown in Figure P15.53, and the coefficient of static friction between the two is 5s = 0.600. What maximum amplitude of oscillation can the system have if block B is not to slip?
A large block P executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with a frequency f. Block B rests on it, as shown in Figure P15.53, and the coefficient of static friction between the two is 5s. What maximum amplitude of oscillation can the system have if the upper block is not to slip?
The mass of the deuterium molecule (D2) is twice that of the hydrogen molecule (H2). If the vibrational frequency of H2 is 1.30, 1014 Hz, what is the vibrational frequency of D2? Assume that the “spring constant” of attracting forces is the same for the two molecules.
A solid sphere (radius = R) rolls without slipping in a cylindrical trough (radius = 5R) as shown in Figure P15.56. Show that, for small displacements from equilibrium perpendicular to the length of the trough, the sphere executes simple harmonic motion with a period T = 2π√28R/5g.
A light, cubical container of volume a3 is initially filled with a liquid of mass density 6. The cube is initially supported by a light string to form a simple pendulum of length Li, measured from the center of mass of the filled container, where Li >> a. The liquid is allowed to flow from the bottom of the container at a constant rate (dM/dt). At any time t, the level of the fluid in the container is h and the length of the pendulum is L (measured relative to the instantaneous center of mass).
(a) Sketch the apparatus and label the dimensions a, h, Li, and L.
(b) Find the time rate of change of the period as a function of time t.
(c) Find the period as a function of time.
After a thrilling plunge, bungee-jumpers bounce freely on the bungee cord through many cycles (Fig. P15.22) After the first few cycles, the cord does not go slack. Your little brother can make a pest of himself by figuring out the mass of each person, using a proportion which you set up by solving this problem: An object of mass m is oscillating freely on a vertical spring with a period T. An object of unknown mass m7 on the same spring oscillates with a period T7. Determine (a) the spring constant and (b) the unknown mass.
A pendulum of length L and mass M has a spring of force constant k connected to it at a distance h below its point of suspension (Fig. P15.59). Find the frequency of vibration of the system for small values of the amplitude (small θ). Assume the vertical suspension of length L is rigid, but ignore its mass.
A particle with a mass of 0.500 kg is attached to a spring with a force constant of 50.0 N/m. At time t = 0 the particle has its maximum speed of 20.0 m/s and is moving to the left.
(a) Determine the particle’s equation of motion, specifying its position as a function of time.
(b) Where in the motion is the potential energy three times the kinetic energy?
(c) Find the length of a simple pendulum with the same period.
(d) Find the minimum time interval required for the particle to move from x = 0 to x = 1.00 m.
A horizontal plank of mass m and length L is pivoted at one end. The plank’s other end is supported by a spring of force constant k (Fig P15.61). The moment of inertia of the plank about the pivot is 1/3 mL2. The plank is displaced by a small angle θ from its horizontal equilibrium position and released.
(a) Show that it moves with simple harmonic motion with an angular frequency w = √3k/ m.
(b) Evaluate the frequency if the mass is 5.00 kg and the spring has a force constant of 1-00N/m.
A particle of mass 4.00 kg is attached to a spring with a force constant of 100 N/m. It is oscillating on a horizontal frictionless surface with an amplitude of 2.00 m. A 6.00-kg object is dropped vertically on top of the 4.00-kg object as it passes through its equilibrium point. The two objects stick together.
(a) By how much does the amplitude of the vibrating system change as a result of the collision? (b) By how much does the period change?
(c) By how much does the energy change?
(d) Account for the change in energy.
A simple pendulum with a length of 2.23 m and a mass of 6.74 kg is given an initial speed of 2.06 m/s at its equilibrium position. Assume it undergoes simple harmonic motion, and determine its (a) period, (b) total energy, and (c) maximum angular displacement.
Review problem. One end of a light spring with force constant 100 N/m is attached to a vertical wall. A light string is tied to the other end of the horizontal spring. The string changes from horizontal to vertical as it passes over a solid pulley of diameter 4.00 cm. The pulley is free to turn on a fixed smooth axle. The vertical section of the string supports a 200-g object. The string does not slip at its contact with the pulley. Find the frequency of oscillation of the object if the mass of the pulley is (a) negligible, (b) 250 g, and (c) 750 g.
People who ride motorcycles and bicycles learn to look out for bumps in the road, and especially for wash boarding, a condition in which many equally spaced ridges are worn into the road. What is so bad about wash boarding? A motorcycle has several springs and shock absorbers in its suspension, but you can model it as a single spring supporting a block. You can estimate the force constant by thinking about how far the spring compresses when a big biker sits down on the seat. A motorcyclist traveling at highway speed must be particularly careful of washboard bumps that are a certain distance apart. What is the order of magnitude of their separation distance? State the quantities you take as data and the values you measure or estimate for them.
A block of mass M is connected to a spring of mass m and oscillates in simple harmonic motion on a horizontal, frictionless track (Fig. P15.66). The force constant of the spring is k and the equilibrium length is L. Assume that all portions of the spring oscillate in phase and that the velocity of a segment dx is proportional to the distance x from the fixed end; that is, vx = (x/L)v. Also, note that the mass of a segment of the spring is dm = (m/L) dx. Find
(a) The kinetic energy of the system when the block has a speed v and
(b) The period of oscillation.
A ball of mass m is connected to two rubber bands of length L, each under tension T, as in Figure P15.67. The ball is displaced by a small distance y perpendicular to the length of the rubber bands. Assuming that the tension does not change, show that
(a) The restoring force is ─ (2T/L) y and
(b) The system exhibits simple harmonic motion with an angular frequency w = √2T/mL.
When a block of mass M, connected to the end of a spring of mass ms = 7.40 g and force constant k, is set into simple harmonic motion, the period of its motion is
T = 2π √M + (ms/3)/k
A two-part experiment is conducted with the use of blocks of various masses suspended vertically from the spring, as shown in Figure P15.68.
(a) Static extensions of 17.0, 29.3, 35.3, 41.3, 47.1, and 49.3 cm are measured for M values of 20.0, 40.0, 50.0, 60.0, 70.0, and 80.0 g, respectively, Construct a graph of Mg versus x, and perform a linear least-squares fit to the data. From the slope of your graph, determine a value for k for this spring.
(b) The system is now set into simple harmonic motion, and periods are measured with a stopwatch. With M = 80.0 g, the total time for 10 oscillations is measured to be 13.41 s. The experiment is repeated with M values of 70.0, 60.0, 50.0, 40.0, and 20.0 g, with corresponding times for 10 oscillations of 12.52, 11.67, 10.67, 9.62, and 7.03 s. Compute the experimental value for T from each of these measurements. Plot a graph of T 2 versus M, and determine a value for k from the slope of the linear least squares fit through the data points. Compare this value of k with that obtained in part (a).
(c) Obtain a value for ms from your graph and compare it with the given value of 7.40 g.
A smaller disk of radius r and mass m is attached rigidly to the face of a second larger disk of radius R and mass M as shown in Figure P15.69. The center of the small disk is located at the edge of the large disk. The large disk is mounted at its center on a frictionless axle. The assembly is rotated through a small angle θ from its equilibrium position and released.
(a) Show that the speed of the center of the small disk as it passes through the equilibrium position is
Consider a damped oscillator as illustrated in Figures 15.21 and 15.22. Assume the mass is 375 g, the spring constant is 100 N/m, and b = 0.100 N4 s/m.
(a) How long does it takes for the amplitude to drop to half its initial value?
(b) What If? How long does it take for the mechanical energy to drop to half its initial value?
(c) Show that, in general, the fractional rate at which the amplitude decreases in a damped harmonic oscillator is half the fractional rate at which the mechanical energy decreases.
A block of mass m is connected to two springs of force constants k1 and k2 as shown in Figures P15.71a and P15.71b. In each case, the block moves on a frictionless table after it is displaced from equilibrium and released. Show that in the two cases the block exhibits simple harmonic motion with periods
A lobsterman’s buoy is a solid wooden cylinder of radius r and mass M. It is weighted at one end so that it floats upright in calm sea water, having density 6. A passing shark tugs on the slack rope mooring the buoy to a lobster trap, pulling the buoy down a distance x from its equilibrium position and releasing it. Show that the buoy will execute simple harmonic motion if the resistive effects of the water are neglected, and determine the period of the oscillations.
Consider a bob on a light stiff rod, forming a simple pendulum of length L = 1.20 m. It is displaced from the vertical by an angle θmax and then released. Predict the subsequent angular positions if θmax is small or if it is large. Proceed as follows: Set up and carry out a numerical method to integrate the equation of motion for the simple pendulum:
Take the initial conditions to be θ = θmax and dθ/dt = 0 at t = 0. On one trial choose θmax = 5.00°, and on another trial take θmax =100°. In each case find the position θ as a function of time. Using the same values of θmax, compare your results for θ with those obtained from θ (t) = θmax cos wt. How does the period for the large value of θmax compare with that for the small value of .max? Note: Using the Euler method to solve this differential equation, you may find that the amplitude tends to increase with time. The fourth-order Runge–Kutta method would be a better choice to solve the differential equation. However, if you choose Δt small enough, the solution using Euler’s method can still be good.
Your thumb squeaks on a plate you have just washed. Your sneakers often squeak on the gym floor. Car tires squeal when you start or stop abruptly. You can make a goblet sing by wiping your moistened finger around its rim. As you slide it across the table, a Styrofoam cup may not make much sound, but it makes the surface of some water inside it dance in a complicated resonance vibration. When chalk squeaks on a blackboard, you can see that it makes a row of regularly spaced dashes. As these examples suggest, vibration commonly results when friction acts on a moving elastic object. The oscillation is not simple harmonic motion, but is called stick-and-slip. This problem models stick and-slip motion.
A block of mass m is attached to a fixed support by a horizontal spring with force constant k and negligible mass (Fig. P15.74). Hooke’s law describes the spring both in extension and in compression. The block sits on a long horizontal board, with which it has coefficient of static friction μs and a smaller coefficient of kinetic friction μk.
The board moves to the right at constant speed v. Assume that the block spends most of its time sticking to the board and moving to the right, so that the speed v is small in comparison to the average speed the block has as it slips back toward the left.
(a) Show that the maximum extension of the spring from its unstressed position is very nearly given by μsmg/k.
(b) Show that the block oscillates around an equilibrium position at which the spring is stretched by 5kmg/k.
(c) Graph the block’s position versus time.
(d) Show that the amplitude of the block’s motion is
Imagine that a hole is drilled through the center of the Earth to the other side. An object of mass m at a distance r from the center of the Earth is pulled toward the center of the Earth only by the mass within the sphere of radius r (the reddish region in Fig. P15.75)
(a) Write Newton’s law of gravitation for an object at the distance r from the center of the Earth, and show that the force on it is of Hooke’s law form, F = -kr, where the effective force constant is k = (4/3)) πpGm. Here P is the density of the Earth, assumed uniform, and G is the gravitational constant.
(b) Show that a sack of mail dropped into the hole will execute simple harmonic motion if it moves without friction. When will it arrive at the other side of the Earth?
At t = 0, a transverse pulse in a wire is described by the function Y = 6/X2 + 3 where x and y are in meters. Write the function y(x, t) that describes this pulse if it is traveling in the positive x direction with a speed of 4.50 m/s.
Ocean waves with a crest-to-crest distance of 10.0 m can be described by the wave function
y(x, t) = (0.800 m) sin[0.628(x - vt)] where v = 1.20 m/s. (a) Sketch y(x, t) at t = 0. (b) Sketch y(x, t) at t = 2.00 s. Note that the entire wave form has shifted 2.40m in the positive x direction in this time interval.
A pulse moving along the x axis is described by y(x, t) = 5.00e - (x +5.00t) 2 where x is in meters and t is in seconds. Determine
(a) The direction of the wave motion, and
(b) The speed of the pulse.
Two points A and B on the surface of the Earth are at the same longitude and 60.0° apart in latitude. Suppose that an earthquake at point A creates a P wave that reaches point B by traveling straight through the body of the Earth at a constant speed of 7.80 km/s. The earthquake also radiates a Rayleigh wave, which travels across the surface of the Earth in an analogous way to a surface wave on water, at 4.50 km/s.
(a) Which of these two seismic waves arrives at B first?
(b) What is the time difference between the arrivals of the two waves at B? Take the radius of the Earth to be 6 370 km.
S and P waves, simultaneously radiated from the hypocenter of an earthquake, are received at a seismographic station 17.3 s apart. Assume the waves have traveled over the same path at speeds of 4.50 km/s and 7.80 km/s.
Find the distance from the seismograph to the hypocenter of the quake.
For a certain transverse wave, the distance between two successive crests is 1.20 m, and eight crests pass a given point along the direction of travel every 12.0 s. Calculate the wave speed.
A sinusoidal wave is traveling along a rope. The oscillator that generates the wave completes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. Also, a given maximum travels 425 cm along the rope in 10.0 s. What is the wavelength?
When a particular wire is vibrating with a frequency of 4.00 Hz, a transverse wave of wavelength 60.0 cm is produced. Determine the speed of waves along the wire.
A wave is described by y = (2.00 cm) sin (kx ─ wt), where k = 2.11 rad/m, w = 3.62 rad/s, x is in meters, and t is in seconds. Determine the amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed of the wave.
A sinusoidal wave on a string is described by y = (0.51 cm) sin (kx ─ wt), where k = 3.10 rad/cm and w = 9.30 rad/s. How far does a wave crest move in 10.0 s? Does it move in the positive or negative x direction?
Consider further the string shown in Figure 16.10 and treated in Example 16.3. Calculate
(a) The maximum transverse speed and
(b) The maximum transverse acceleration of a point on the string.
Consider the sinusoidal wave of Example 16.2, with the wave function
y = (15.0 cm) cos (0.157x ─ 50.3t).
At a certain instant, let point A be at the origin and point B be the first point along the x axis where the wave is 60.0° out of phase with point A. What is the coordinate of point B?
A sinusoidal wave is described by y = (0.25 m) sin (0.30x ─ 40t) where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. Determine for this wave the (a) amplitude, (b) angular frequency, (c) angular wave number, (d) wavelength, (e) wave speed, and (f) direction of motion.
(a) Plot y versus t at x = 0 for a sinusoidal wave of the form y = (15.0 cm) cos (0.157x - 50.3t), where x and y are in centimeters and t is in seconds. (b) Determine the period of vibration from this plot and compare your result with the value found in Example 16.2.
(a) Write the expression for y as a function of x and t for a sinusoidal wave traveling along a rope in the negative x direction with the following characteristics: A = 8.00 cm, A = 80.0 cm, f = 3.00 Hz, and y (0, t) = 0 at t = 0.
(b) What If? Write the expression for y as a function of x and t for the wave in part (a) assuming that y(x, 0) = 0 at the point x = 10.0 cm.
A sinusoidal wave traveling in the ─x direction (to the left) has an amplitude of 20.0 cm, a wavelength of 35.0 cm, and a frequency of 12.0 Hz. The transverse position of an element of the medium at t = 0, x = 0 is y = 3.00 cm, and the element has a positive velocity here.
(a) Sketch the wave at t = 0. (b) Find the angular wave number, period, angular frequency, and wave speed of the wave. (c) Write an expression for the wave function y(x, t).
A transverse wave on a string is described by the wave function
y = (0.120 m) sin [(πx/8) + 4πt]
(a) Determine the transverse speed and acceleration at t = 0.200 s for the point on the string located at x = 1.60 m.
(b) What are the wavelength, period, and speed of propagation of this wave?
A transverse sinusoidal wave on a string has a period T = 25.0 ms and travels in the negative x direction with a speed of 30.0 m/s. At t = 0, a particle on the string at x = 0 has a transverse position of 2.00 cm and is traveling downward with a speed of 2.00 m/s.
(a) What is the amplitude of the wave?
(b) What is the initial phase angle?
(c) What is the maximum transverse speed of the string?
(d) Write the wave function for the wave.
A sinusoidal wave of wavelength 2.00 m and amplitude 0.100 m travels on a string with a speed of 1.00 m/s to the right. Initially, the left end of the string is at the origin. Find
(a) The frequency and angular frequency, (b) the angular wave number, and
(c) The wave function for this wave. Determine the equation of motion for
(d) The left end of the string and
(e) The point on the string at x 1.50 m to the right of the left end.
(f) What is the maximum speed of any point on the string?
A wave on a string is described by the wave function y = (0.100 m) sin (0.50x ─ 20t).
(a) Show that a particle in the string at x = 2.00 m executes simple harmonic motion.
(b) Determine the frequency of oscillation of this particular point.
A telephone cord is 4.00 m long. The cord has a mass of 0.200 kg. A transverse pulse is produced by plucking one end of the taut cord. The pulse makes four trips down and back along the cord in 0.800 s. What is the tension in the cord?
Transverse waves with a speed of 50.0 m/s are to be produced in a taut string. A 5.00-m length of string with a total mass of 0.060 0 kg is used. What is the required tension?
A piano string having a mass per unit length equal to 5.00 x 10─3 kg/m is under a tension of 1 350 N. Find the speed of a wave traveling on this string.
A transverse traveling wave on a taut wire has an amplitude of 0.200 mm and a frequency of 500 Hz. It travels with a speed of 196 m/s.
(a) Write an equation in SI units of the form y = A sin (kx ─ wt) for this wave.
(b) The mass per unit length of this wire is 4.10 g/m. Find the tension in the wire.
An astronaut on the Moon wishes to measure the local value of the free-fall acceleration by timing pulses traveling down a wire that has an object of large mass suspended from it. Assume a wire has a mass of 4.00 g and a length of 1.60 m, and that a 3.00-kg object is suspended from it. A pulse requires 36.1 ms to traverse the length of the wire. Calculate g Moon from these data. (You may ignore the mass of the wire when calculating the tension in it.)