- A constant-volume gas thermometer is calibrated in dry ice (that is, carbon dioxide in the solid state, which has a temperature of - 80.0°C) and in
- In a constant-volume gas thermometer, the pressure at 20.0°C is 0.980 atm. (a) What is the pressure at 45.0°C? (b) What is the temperature if
- Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of - 195.81°C at atmospheric pressure. Express this temperature (a) In degrees Fahrenheit and (b) In kelvins.
- Convert the following to equivalent temperatures on the Celsius and Kelvin scales: (a) The normal human body temperature, 98.6°F; (b) The air
- The temperature difference between the inside and the outside of an automobile engine is 450°C. Express this temperature difference on (a) The
- On a Strange temperature scale, the freezing point of water is -15.0°S and the boiling point is + 60.0°S. Develop a linear conversion equation
- The melting point of gold is 1 064°C, and the boiling point is 2 660°C. (a) Express these temperatures in kelvins. (b) Compute the difference
- The New River Gorge bridge in West Virginia is a steel arch bridge 518 m in length. How much does the total length of the roadway decking change
- A copper telephone wire has essentially no sag between poles 35.0 m apart on a winter day when the temperature is - 20.0°C. How much longer is the
- The concrete sections of a certain superhighway are designed to have a length of 25.0 m. The sections are poured and cured at 10.0°C. What minimum
- A pair of eyeglass frames is made of epoxy plastic. At room temperature (20.0°C), the frames have circular lens holes 2.20 cm in radius. To what
- Each year thousands of children are badly burned by hot tap water. Figure P19.12 shows a cross-sectional view of an anti scalding faucet attachment
- The active element of a certain laser is made of a glass rod 30.0 cm long by 1.50 cm in diameter. If the temperature of the rod increases by 65.0°C,
- Inside the wall of a house, an L-shaped section of hot-water pipe consists of a straight horizontal piece 28.0 cm long, an elbow, and a straight
- A brass ring of diameter 10.00 cm at 20.0°C is heated and slipped over an aluminum rod of diameter 10.01 cm at 20.0°C. Assuming the average
- A square hole 8.00 cm along each side is cut in a sheet of copper. (a) Calculate the change in the area of this hole if the temperature of the
- The average coefficient of volume expansion for carbon tetrachloride is 5.81 X 10-4 (°C)-1. If a 50.0-gal steel container is filled completely
- At 20.0°C, an aluminum ring has an inner diameter of 5.000 0 cm and a brass rod has a diameter of 5.050 0 cm. (a) If only the ring is heated, what
- A volumetric flask made of Pyrex is calibrated at 20.0°C. It is filled to the 100-mL mark with 35.0°C acetone. (a) What is the volume of the
- A concrete walk is poured on a day when the temperature is 20.0°C in such a way that the ends are unable to move. (a) What is the stress in the
- A hollow aluminum cylinder 20.0 cm deep has an internal capacity of 2.000 L at 20.0°C. It is completely filled with turpentine and then slowly
- A beaker made of ordinary glass contains a lead sphere of diameter 4.00 cm firmly attached to its bottom. At a uniform temperature of - 10.0°C, the
- A steel rod undergoes a stretching force of 500 N. Its cross-sectional area is 2.00 cm2. Find the change in temperature that would elongate the rod
- The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco has a main span of length 1.28 km—one of the longest in the world. Imagine that a taut steel wire with this
- Gas is contained in an 8.00-L vessel at a temperature of 20.0°C and a pressure of 9.00 atm. (a) Determine the number of moles of gas in the
- A certain telescope forms an image of part of a cluster of stars on a square silicon charge-coupled detector (CCD) chip 2.00 cm on each side. A star
- An automobile tire is inflated with air originally at 10.0°C and normal atmospheric pressure. During the process, the air is compressed to 28.0% of
- A tank having a volume of 0.100 m3 contains helium gas at 150 atm. How many balloons can the tank blow up if each filled balloon is a sphere 0.300 m
- An auditorium has dimensions 10.0 m X 20.0 m X 30.0 m. How many molecules of air fill the auditorium at 20.0°C and a pressure of 101 kPa?
- Imagine a baby alien playing with a spherical balloon the size of the Earth in the outer solar system. Helium gas inside the balloon has a uniform
- Just 9.00 g of water is placed in a 2.00-L pressure cooker and heated to 500°C. What is the pressure inside the container?
- One mole of oxygen gas is at a pressure of 6.00 atm and a temperature of 27.0°C. (a) If the gas is heated at constant volume until the pressure
- The mass of a hot-air balloon and its cargo (not including the air inside) is 200 kg. The air outside is at 10.0°C and 101 kPa. The volume of the
- Your father and your little brother are confronted with the same puzzle. Your father’s garden sprayer and your brother’s water cannon both have
- (a) Find the number of moles in one cubic meter of an ideal gas at 20.0°C and atmospheric pressure. (b) For air, Avogadro’s number of molecules
- The void fraction of a porous medium is the ratio of the void volume to the total volume of the material. The void is the hollow space within the
- A cube 10.0 cm on each edge contains air (with equivalent molar mass 28.9 g/mol) at atmospheric pressure and temperature 300 K. Find (a) The mass
- At 25.0 m below the surface of the sea (p =1 025 kg/m3), where the temperature is 5.00°C, a diver exhales an air bubble having a volume of 1.00 cm3.
- The pressure gauge on a tank registers the gauge pressure, which is the difference between the interior and exterior pressure. When the tank is full
- Estimate the mass of the air in your bedroom. State the quantities you take as data and the value you measure or estimate for each.
- On his honeymoon James Joule traveled from England to Switzerland. He attempted to verify his idea of the interconvertibility of mechanical energy
- A popular brand of cola contains 6.50 g of carbon dioxide dissolved in 1.00 L of soft drink. If the evaporating carbon dioxide is trapped in a
- In state-of-the-art vacuum systems, pressures as low as 10-9 Pa are being attained. Calculate the number of molecules in a 1.00-m3 vessel at this
- A room of volume V contains air having equivalent molar mass M (in g/mol). If the temperature of the room is raised from T1 to T2, what mass of air
- A diving bell in the shape of a cylinder with a height of 2.50 m is closed at the upper end and opens at the lower end. The bell is lowered from air
- A student measures the length of a brass rod with a steel tape at 20.0°C. The reading is 95.00 cm. What will the tape indicate for the length of the
- Consider Joule’s apparatus described in Figure 20.1. The mass of each of the two blocks is 1.50 kg, and the insulated tank is filled with 200 g of
- The temperature of a silver bar rises by 10.0°C when it absorbs 1.23 kJ of energy by heat. The mass of the bar is 525 g. Determine the specific heat
- The density of gasoline is 730 kg/m3 at 0°C. Its average coefficient of volume expansion is 9.60 X 10-4 /°C. If 1.00 gal of gasoline occupies 0.003
- A 50.0-g sample of copper is at 25.0°C. If 1 200 J of energy is added to it by heat, what is the final temperature of the copper?
- Systematic use of solar energy can yield a large saving in the cost of winter space heating for a typical house in the north central United States.
- A mercury thermometer is constructed as shown in Figure P19.47. The capillary tube has a diameter of 0.004 00 cm, and the bulb has a diameter of
- A liquid with a coefficient of volume expansion ' just fills a spherical shell of volume Vi at a temperature of Ti (see Fig. P19.47). The shell is
- A cylinder is closed by a piston connected to a spring of constant 2.00 X 103 N/m (see Fig. P19.50). with the spring relaxed, the cylinder is filled
- An aluminum pipe, 0.655 m long at 20.0°C and open at both ends, is used as a flute. The pipe is cooled to a low temperature but then is filled with
- A liquid has a density p. (a) Show that the fractional change in density for a change in temperature ΔT is Δp/ = -BΔT. What does
- Long-term space missions require reclamation of the oxygen in the carbon dioxide exhaled by the crew. In one method of reclamation, 1.00 mol of
- A vertical cylinder of cross-sectional area A is fitted with a tight-fitting, frictionless piston of mass m (Fig. P19.53) (a) If n moles of an ideal
- A bimetallic strip is made of two ribbons of dissimilar metals bonded together. (a) First assume the strip is originally straight. As they are
- The Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California is used in studies of initiating controlled nuclear fusion (Section 45.4). It
- The rectangular plate shown in Figure P19.55 has an area Ai equal to If the temperature increases by ΔT, each dimension increases according to
- A clock with a brass pendulum has a period of 1.000 s at 20.0°C. If the temperature increases to 30.0°C, (a) By how much does the period change,
- (a) Derive an expression for the buoyant force on a spherical balloon, submerged in water, as a function of the depth below the surface, the volume
- Consider an object with any one of the shapes displayed in Table 10.2. What is the percentage increase in the moment of inertia of the object when it
- A copper wire and a lead wire are joined together, end to end. The compound wire has an effective coefficient of linear expansion of 20.0 X 10-6
- Following a collision in outer space, a copper disk at 850°C is rotating about its axis with an angular speed of 25.0 rad/s. As the disk radiates
- Two concrete spans of a 250-m-long bridge are placed end to end so that no room is allowed for expansion (Fig. P19.61a). If a temperature increase of
- Two concrete spans of a bridge of length L are placed end to end so that no room is allowed for expansion (Fig. P19.61a). If a temperature increase
- A 1.50-kg iron horseshoe initially at 600°C is dropped into a bucket containing 20.0 kg of water at 25.0°C. What is the final temperature? (Ignore
- (a) Show that the density of an ideal gas occupying a volume V is given by p = PM/RT, where M is the molar mass. (b) Determine the density of
- (a) Use the equation of state for an ideal gas and the definition of the coefficient of volume expansion, in the form β = (1/V) dV/dT, to show
- Starting with Equation 19.10, show that the total pressure P in a container filled with a mixture of several ideal gases is P = P1 + P2 + P3 + .,
- A sample of dry air that has a mass of 100.00 g, collected at sea level, is analyzed and found to consist of the following gases: Nitrogen (N2) =
- A 1.50-kg iron horseshoe initially at 600°C is dropped into a bucket containing 20.0 kg of water at 25.0°C. What is the final temperature? (Ignore
- Helium gas is sold in steel tanks. If the helium is used to inflate a balloon, could the balloon lift the spherical tank the helium came in? Justify
- A cylinder that has a 40.0-cm radius and is 50.0 cm deep is filled with air at 20.0°C and 1.00 atm (Fig. P19.68a). A 20.0-kg piston is now lowered
- An aluminum cup of mass 200 g contains 800 g of water in thermal equilibrium at 80.0°C. The combination of cup and water is cooled uniformly so that
- The relationship Lf = Li (1 + αΔT) is an approximation that works when the average coefficient of expansion is small. If α is large,
- A steel wire and a copper wire, each of diameter 2.000 mm, are joined end to end. At 40.0°C, each has an unscratched length of 2.000 m; they are
- An aluminum calorimeter with a mass of 100 g contains 250 g of water. The calorimeter and water are in thermal equilibrium at 10.0°C. Two metallic
- A combination of 0.250 kg of water at 20.0°C, 0.400 kg of aluminum at 26.0°C, and 0.100 kg of copper at 100°C is mixed in an insulated container
- A steel guitar string with a diameter of 1.00 mm is stretched between supports 80.0 cm apart. The temperature is 0.0°C. (a) Find the mass per unit
- In a chemical processing plant, a reaction chamber of fixed volume V0 is connected to a reservoir chamber of fixed volume 4V0 by a passage containing
- A 1.00-km steel railroad rail is fastened securely at both ends when the temperature is 20.0°C. As the temperature increases, the rail begins to
- A perfectly plane house roof makes an angle - with the horizontal. When its temperature changes, between Tc before dawn each day to Th in the middle
- Is it possible for two objects to be in thermal equilibrium if they are not in contact with each other? Explain
- If water with a mass mh at temperature Th is poured into an aluminum cup of mass mAl containing mass mc of water at Tc, where Th > Tc , what is the
- A water heater is operated by solar power. If the solar collector has an area of 6.00 m2 and the intensity delivered by sunlight is 550 W/m2, how
- Two thermally insulated vessels are connected by a narrow tube fitted with a valve that is initially closed. One vessel, of volume 16.8 L, contains
- How much energy is required to change a 40.0-g ice cube from ice at -10.0°C to steam at 110°C?
- A 50.0-g copper calorimeter contains 250 g of water at 20.0°C. How much steam must be condensed into the water if the final temperature of the
- A 3.00-g lead bullet at 30.0°C is fired at a speed of 240 m/s into a large block of ice at 0°C, in which it becomes embedded. What quantity of ice
- Steam at 100°C is added to ice at 0°C. (a) Find the amount of ice melted and the final temperature when the mass of steam is 1.0 g and the mass
- A 1.00-kg block of copper at 20.0°C is dropped into a large vessel of liquid nitrogen at 77.3 K. How many kilograms of nitrogen boil away by the
- Assume that a hailstone at 0°C falls through air at a uniform temperature of 0°C and lands on a sidewalk also at this temperature. From what
- In an insulated vessel, 250 g of ice at 0°C is added to 600 g of water at 18.0°C. (a) What is the final temperature of the system? (b) How much
- Two speeding lead bullets, each of mass 5.00 g, and at temperature 20.0°C, collide head-on at speeds of 500 m/s each. Assuming a perfectly inelastic
- A sample of ideal gas is expanded to twice its original volume of 1.00 m3 in a quasi-static process for which P =αV 2, with α = 5.00
- (a) Determine the work done on a fluid that expands from i to f as indicated in Figure P20.24. (b) What If? How much work is performed on the fluid
- An ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston on top of it. The piston has a mass of 8 000 g and an area of 5.00 cm2 and is free to