- What is the attributable risk for the exposed group? Interpret the risk in plain English.A cohort study following a group of 200 randomly selected adolescent males finds the results shown in Table
- Should the nurse researcher include both independent variables in her final model? Explain your answer.Assume that age and academic knowledge (graded exam: 0–100%) have been shown to be related to
- Is the R-squared significant? Explain your answer.Assume that age and academic knowledge (graded exam: 0–100%) have been shown to be related to health knowledge (knowledge questionnaire score:
- What is your outcome or dependent variable?The variables in Table 13-7 have been examined to determine the association with length of labor. TABLE 13-7 Variable Maternal age 12 Hours Yes No
- During the study, no other new infection control procedures were implemented. How would this affect the validity of the study?Read the following article to see how several researchers assessed the RR
- The study states it has a quasi-experimental design. Why is this not a randomized control trial?Read the following article to see how several researchers assessed the RR of nosocomial infections
- What are your “exposure” or independent variables?The variables in Table 13-7 have been examined to determine the association with length of labor. TABLE 13-7 Variable Maternal age 12
- What type of sample was utilized for this study?Read the following article to see how several researchers assessed the RR of nosocomial infections before and after a handwashing intervention. These
- If HbA1c increases by 2%, what would be the predicted change in FBS?The Khan et al. (2015) study also reported the following regression equation and reported that HbA1c could also be used to predict
- It is really helpful to start reading professional research articles to see how these concepts are used in actual study scenarios. Give it a try in the following article, where the researchers used
- It is really helpful to start reading professional research articles to see how these concepts are used in actual study scenarios. Give it a try in the following article, where the researchers used
- It is really helpful to start reading professional research articles to see how these concepts are used in actual study scenarios. Give it a try in this article, where the researchers examined the
- It is really helpful to start reading professional research articles to see how these concepts are used in actual study scenarios. Give it a try in the following article, where the researchers used
- When were the hemodynamic parameters measured?Let’s look at the use of ANOVA in the following nursing research article:Özden, D., & Görgülü, R. S. (2015). Effects of open and closed suction
- Look at the following research article to see how the statistical techniques you have already learned are used in practice:Watson, J., Kinstler, A., Vidonish III, W. P., Wagner, M., Li, L., Davis, K.
- Look at the following research article to see how the statistical techniques you have already learned are used in practice:Watson, J., Kinstler, A., Vidonish III, W. P., Wagner, M., Li, L., Davis, K.
- Look at the following research article to see how the statistical techniques you have already learned are used in practice:Watson, J., Kinstler, A., Vidonish III, W. P., Wagner, M., Li, L., Davis, K.
- Look at the following research article to see how the statistical techniques you have already learned are used in practice: Watson, J., Kinstler, A., Vidonish III, W. P., Wagner, M., Li, L.,
- Look at the following research article to see how the statistical techniques you have already learned are used in practice:Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the
- Look at the following research article to see how the statistical techniques you have already learned are used in practice:The researchers indicate that significant positive correlations were found
- What is the independent variable? What level of measurement is it?Mosfeldt et al. (2012) collected data on 792 patients age 60 or over who were admitted to a hospital in Denmark with a hip fracture
- What was the purpose of the study?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it helps you understand the concept when you see it applied in a
- What is the dependent variable? What level of measurement is it?Mosfeldt et al. (2012) collected data on 792 patients age 60 or over who were admitted to a hospital in Denmark with a hip fracture
- What are the outcome variables in this study?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it helps you understand the concept when you see it applied in
- What type of sample is this? Is it a probability or nonprobability sample?Mosfeldt et al. (2012) collected data on 792 patients age 60 or over who were admitted to a hospital in Denmark with a hip
- What level of measurement are the outcome variables?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it helps you understand the concept when you see it
- These researchers chose to use a regression model. Should they perform a linear regression, multiple regression, or logistic regression? Why?Mosfeldt et al. (2012) collected data on 792 patients age
- Despite randomization, there were significant differences in demographic characteristics noted between the control and experimental groups. Which characteristics had significant differences between
- What would be the independent variables? What level are they?In another study, researchers randomly selected five hospitals with orthopedic units in the United States and collected data from all the
- Was there a significant difference in the average length of the second stage of labor between the two groups? How do you know?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a
- What would be the dependent variable? What level is it?In another study, researchers randomly selected five hospitals with orthopedic units in the United States and collected data from all the male
- Was there a significant difference in the number of cesarean sections between the two groups? How do you know?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study.
- When looking at the differences in these outcome variables, length of the second stage of labor and mode of delivery, two different tests were used. Why?Here’s an example of how multiple regression
- What type of sampling method is this? Is it probability or nonprobability sampling?In another study, researchers randomly selected five hospitals with orthopedic units in the United States and
- Why might these researchers have chosen to exclude those admitted with a hip fracture who are younger than 60?In another study, researchers randomly selected five hospitals with orthopedic units in
- When offering the option of using a peanut-shaped exercise ball to your patient, her mother expresses concern that this type of positioning might increase the risk of the baby being born with a
- The researchers report that parity (number of births) and cervical dilation were different between the two groups. Because these factors can have an impact on the outcome variables and were not
- Would it be appropriate to use these results to predict the length of stay for female patients over age 60 admitted with hip fractures? Why or why not?In another study, researchers randomly selected
- According to the SPSS output, what percentage of the variance in health knowledge is explained by age and academic knowledge?Assume that age and academic knowledge (graded exam: 0–100%) have been
- The researchers decided to perform univariate analyses of each independent variable and each of the three outcome variables. Which independent variables were significantly associated with the risk of
- If these researchers had already established that a causative relationship existed between these variables and asked you for a statistics consultation, what would you tell them is the appropriate
- The researchers included the independent variables that were significantly associated with the outcomes variables in the univariate analysis in their multiple regression analysis. They kept those
- Explain the beta coefficient for cervical dilation.Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it helps you understand the concept when you see it
- If the nurse researcher includes both independent variables in her prediction equation, her predicted health knowledge score will be incorrect by an average of how many points?Assume that age and
- The researchers included the independent variables that were significantly associated with the outcomes variables in the univariate analysis in their multiple regression analysis. They kept those
- According to this model, every 1-year increase in age results in what change in the health knowledge score?Assume that age and academic knowledge (graded exam: 0–100%) have been shown to be related
- If the finding about the relationship between using the peanut-shaped ball and the length of the firststage of labor was incorrect, what type of error would it be? What would be the most likely cause
- Using this model, if a 15-year-old scored 70 on his academic knowledge exam, what would you expect him to score on his health knowledge exam?Assume that age and academic knowledge (graded exam:
- The researchers discuss in their Power Analysis section that they estimated the effect size from the results of a small pilot study. If the impact of the use of a ball on the length of the first
- What type of sample is this?Assume that age and academic knowledge (graded exam: 0–100%) have been shown to be related to health knowledge (knowledge questionnaire score: 0–100%) among teens. A
- The researchers use a logistic regression model rather than a multivariate regression model to assess the delivery mode outcome. Why is this?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be
- A researcher working with military officers would like to use the data he has collected from them to predict their health knowledge score based on this research. Would this be an appropriate
- Is the use of the ball significantly associated with the risk of a cesarean delivery? How do you know?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it
- Is the use of the ball a protective effect or risk factor for a cesarean section delivery?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it helps you
- Does this model explain more or less of the variance in the health knowledge score? Is this a large change? Does that make sense?The nurse researcher in questions 11–18 examined her SPSS output and
- In which model is the predicted outcome more accurate?The nurse researcher in questions 11–18 examined her SPSS output and decided to drop the second independent variable (score on the academic
- Using this prediction equation, if a 15-year-old scored 70 on his academic knowledge exam, what would you predict he would score on his health knowledge exam?The nurse researcher in questions 11–18
- Using the ball was significantly associated with a decrease in the length of the second stage of labor. Although this outcome is usually a positive result, nurses should avoid using this intervention
- Based on the results in this study, what happened with this nurse-led intervention?Here’s an example of how multiple regression can be useful in a research study. Sometimes it helps you understand
- This sample includes 9 teens age 14, 12 teens age 15, 25 teens age 16, 27 teens age 17, and 45 teens age 18.Show this frequency distribution graphically.
- This sample includes 9 teens age 14, 12 teens age 15, 25 teens age 16, 27 teens age 17, and 45 teens age 18.What level of measurement is age in this example?
- This sample includes 9 teens age 14, 12 teens age 15, 25 teens age 16, 27 teens age 17, and 45 teens age 18.Calculate all appropriate measures of central tendency for this variable.
- From this equation you know that an increase of 1 unit in FBS is associated with what change in HbA1c?Khan, Sobki, and Alhomida (2015) examined 75 patients to assess the association between fasting
- This sample includes 9 teens age 14, 12 teens age 15, 25 teens age 16, 27 teens age 17, and 45 teens age 18.Is age normally distributed in this sample? Explain your answer.
- The researchers also examined the independent variable of gender but did not include this variable in the final regression equation. Why do you think gender was not included in the final regression
- The researchers report that ethnicity was not measured in this study but has been reported to be significant in other similar studies. If the study were repeated and ethnicity was included, and if
- If HbA1c is 8%, what would be the predicted in mmol/l of FBS?The Khan et al. (2015) study also reported the following regression equation and reported that HbA1c could also be used to predict FBS.
- Instead you measure your dependent variable rounded to the nearest full hour. What level of measurement is it? Is it quantitative or qualitative?The variables in Table 13-7 have been examined to
- Suppose you originally measured this variable as a yes-or-no response to the question, “Did you feel as though you had a very long labor?” What level of measurement was it? Was it a quantitative
- If a new antibiotic policy were started before this study, how might a carryover effect have impacted the results?Read the following article to see how several researchers assessed the RR of
- If the study has an alpha of 0.05, which variables are associated with the length of labor? Which are associated with a decreased length of labor? Which are associated with an increased length of
- In this study, data for each observed opportunity for handwashing was recorded as correctly performed or not (yes or no). What level of measurement is this variable?Read the following article to see
- Note that when the p-value is significant, the RR confidence intervals do not include the value of one.Why?The variables in Table 13-7 have been examined to determine the association with length of
- Instead the data were collected as the number of errors made while handwashing. The variable would be at what level of measurement?Read the following article to see how several researchers assessed
- Did maternal age significantly increase the risk of having a labor greater than 12 hours?The variables in Table 13-7 have been examined to determine the association with length of labor. TABLE
- What was the rate of health care workers’ (HCWs’) performance of correct handwashing techniques between patient encounters before and after the intervention?Read the following article to see how