- Give some examples of database utilities.
- Give some examples of vendor provided tools
- Distinguish between the DBMS and a file management system.
- List the major functions performed by the DBA
- What do you understand by the term metadata?
- Distinguish between logical and physical data independence.
- List the major functions performed by the DBMS
- Describe the sequence of steps involved in retrieving a particular external record occurrence.
- Explain the following in your own words:
- Write SQL statements to perform the following operations on the wine cellar database: a. Get bin number, name of wine, and number of bottles for all
- Show the effects of the following SQL update operations on the wine cellar database of fig: a. INSERT INTO CELLAR(BIN#, WINE, PRODUCER, YEAR,
- Give in your own words an interpretation as a true proposition of a typical row from each of your answers to Exercise 1.5:
- Show the effects of the following SQL retrieval operations on the wine cellar database of Fig: a. SELECT WINE, PRODUCER. FROM CELLAR WHERE BIN# =
- What do you understand by the term data model? Explain the difference between a data model and its implementation. Why is the difference important?
- What do you understand by the term relational system? Distinguish between relational and non-relational system.
- What are the advantages of using a database system? What are the disadvantages?
- Explain the following in your own words: • Binary relationship • Command driven interface • Concurrent access • Data
- Explain the following in your own words: • Automatic navigation • Base relvar • Catalog • Closure • Commit • Derived
- Sketch the contents of the catalog relvars TABLE and COLUMN for the suppliers and parts database.
- As explained in the section 3.6, the catalog is self-describing that is, it includes entries for the catalog relvars themselves. Extend Fig. 3.6 to
- Here is a query on the suppliers and parts database. What does it do? What is the predicate for the result? ((S JOIN SP) WHERE P# = P# (‘P2’) )
- Suppose the expression in Exercise 3.4 is used in a view definition: CREATE VIEW V AS (S JOIN SP) WHERE P# - P# (‘P2’) ) {S#, CITY}; Now
- What do you understand by the terms atomicity, durability, isolation, and serializability as applied to transactions?
- State the information Principle.
- The fig shows some sample data values for an extended form of the suppliers and parts database called the suppliers parts projects database.
- Give SQL formulations for the following updates to the suppliers parts projects database: a. Insert a new supplier S10 into table S (the name and
- Again using the suppliers parts projects database, write a program with embedded SQL statements to list all suppliers in supplier number order. Each
- Let tables PART and PART_STRUCTURE be defined as follows: CREATE TABLE PART (P# P#, DESCRIPTION CHAR(100), PRIMARY KEY (P#)); CREATE TABLE PART
- State the type rules for the assignment (“: =”) and equality comparison (“=”) operators.
- Explain the following in you own words:Coercion pseudo variableGenerated type selectorLiteral strong typing Ordinal
- Why are pseudo variable logically unnecessary?
- Define and operator that, given a rational number, returns the cube of that number,
- Define a read-only operator that, given a point with Cartesian coordinates x and y, returns the point with Cartesian coordinates f(x) and g(y), where
- Repeat Exercise 5.6 but make the operator an update operator.
- Give a type definition for a scalar type called CIRCLE, what selectors and The-operators apply to this type? Also:a. Define a set of read only
- Give some examples of types for which it might be useful to define two or more distinct possible representations. Can you think of an example where
- Given an appropriate set of scalar type definitions for the suppliers-parts-projects database do not attempt to write the relvar definitions.
- We pointed out that it is strictly incorrect to say that (e.g.) the quantity for a certain shipment is 100 (“a quantity is a value of type QTY, not
- It is sometime suggested that types are really variables too, like relvar, for example, legal employee number might grow from three digits to four as
- SQL has no formal row array literals. Explain and justify this observation.
- What do you understand by the term cardinality?
- Write tuple selector invocations for a typical tuple from each of the relvars in the suppliers-parts-projects database.
- What do you understand by the term first normal form?
- Give an example of your own of a relation with(a) One relation-valued attribute and(b) Two such attributes. Also, give two more relation that
- Write an expression that returns true if the current value of the parts relvar P is empty and false otherwise. Do not use the is-empty shorthand.
- State the closed World Assumption.
- It is sometimes suggested that a relvar is really just a traditional computer file, with “tuples” instead of records and “attributes” instead
- Give Tutorial d formulations for the following updates to the suppliers-parts-projects data-base;(a) Insert a new shipment with supplier number S1,
- We have seen that data definition operations cause updates to be made to the catalog. But the catalog is only a collection of relvars, just like the
- In the body of the chapter, we said that any type whatsoever can be used as the basis for defining relational attributes, in general. That qualifier
- What do you understand by the SQL terms column, field, and attribute?
- Consider the SQL type point and the SQL table points as defined in the subsection “Structured Types” Type Point has a representation involving
- Which of the relational operators defined in this chapter have a definition that does not rely on tuple equality?
- Given the usual suppliers-and-parts database, what is the value of the expression S join Sp join P? What is the corresponding predicate? Warning;
- Let r be a relation of degree n. How many different projections of r are there?
- Union, intersection, product, and natural join are all both commutative and associative. Verify these claims.
- Of Cod’s original set of eight operators, union, difference, product, restrict, and project can be considered as primitives. Give definitions of
- In ordinary arithmetic, multiplication and division are inverse operation. Are times and divide by inverse operations in the relation algebra?
- In ordinary arithmetic there are two special numbers, I and 0, with the properties that n * 1 = 1 * n = nAnd n * 0 = 0 * n = 0 for all number n. What
- Given that intersect is a special case of join, why do not both operators give the same result when applied to no relation at all?
- Which (if any) of the following expressions are equivalent?(a) Summarize r per r ( ) add count as ct (b) Summarize r add count as ct(c) Summarize r
- Let r be the relation denoted by the following expression; SP group () as x Show what r looks like, given our usual sample value for SP. Also, show
- Get all supplier-number/part-number/project-number triples such that the indicated supplier, part, and project are not all collocated.
- Get all supplier-number/part-number/project-number triples such that no two of the indicated supplier, part, and project are collocated.
- Get part numbers for parts supplied by a supplier in London to a project in London.
- Get all pairs of city names such that a supplier in the first city supplies a project in the second city.
- Get project numbers for projects supplied by at least one supplier not in the same city.
- Get all pairs of part numbers such that some supplier supplies both the indicated parts.
- Get the total number of projects supplied by supplier S1.
- Get the total number of part P1 supplied by supplier S1
- Get part number of parts supplied to some project in an average quantity of more than 350.
- Get supplier number for suppliers with a status lower than that of supplier S1.
- Get supplier number for projects supplied with part P1 in an average quantity greater than the greatest quantity in which any part is supplied to
- Get supplier numbers for suppliers supplying some project with part P1 in a quantity greater than the average shipment quantity of part P1 for that
- Get project numbers for projects not supplied with any red part by any London supplier.
- Get part numbers for parts supplied to all projects in London.
- Get project number for projects supplied with at least all parts available from supplier S1.
- Get part numbers for parts that are supplied either by a London supplier or to a London project.
- Get all pairs of supplier numbers, Sx and Su say, such that Sx and Sy supply exactly the same set of parts each. Note for simplicity, you might want
- List four significant differences between a file-processing system and a DBMS.
- This chapter has described severalmajor advantages of a database system.What are two disadvantages?
- List five responsibilities of a database management system. For each responsibility, explain the problems that would arise if the responsibility were
- What are five main functions of a database administrator?
- List seven programming languages that are procedural and two that are nonprocedural. Which group is easier to learn and use? Explain your answer.
- List six major steps that you would take in setting up a database for a particular enterprise.
- Consider a two-dimensional integer array of size n × m that is to be used in your favorite programming language. Using the array as an example,
- Explain the difference between physical and logical data independence.
- Explain the distinctions among the terms primary key, candidate key, and superkey.
- Construct an E-R diagram for a car-insurance company whose customers own one or more cars each. Each car has associated with it zero to any number of
- Construct an E-R diagram for a hospital with a set of patients and a set of medical doctors. Associate with each patient a log of the various tests
- A university registrar’s office maintains data about the following entities:(a) Courses, including number, title, credits, syllabus, and
- Consider a database used to record the marks that students get in different exams of different course offerings.a. Construct an E-R diagram that
- Construct appropriate tables for each of the E-R diagrams in Exercises 2.2 to 2.4.
- Design an E-R diagramfor keeping track of the exploits of your favourite sports team. You should store thematches played, the scores in eachmatch,
- Extend the E-R diagram of the previous question to track the same information for all teams in a league.
- Explain the difference between a weak and a strong entity set.
- We can convert any weak entity set to a strong entity set by simply adding appropriate attributes.Why, then, do we have weak entity sets?
- Define the concept of aggregation. Give two examples of where this concept is useful.
- Consider an E-R diagram in which the same entity set appears several times. Why is allowing this redundancy a bad practice that one should avoid when
- Consider a university database for the scheduling of classrooms for final exams. This database could be modeled as the single entity set exam, with