- A 115 mCi radioactive tracer is made in a nuclear reactor. When it is delivered to a hospital 16 hours later its activity is 95 mCi. The lowest usable level of activity is 10 mCi.a. What is the
- 137Cs is a common product of nuclear fission. Suppose an accident spills 550 mCi of 137Cs in a lab room.a. What mass of 137Cs is spilled?b. If the spill is not cleaned up, how long will it take until
- A 1 Ci source of radiation is a significant source. 238U is an alpha emitter. What mass of 238U has an activity of 1 Ci?
- Particle accelerators fire protons at target nuclei so that investigators can study the nuclear reactions that occur. In one experiment, the proton needs to have 20 MeV of kinetic energy as it
- An unstable nucleus undergoes alpha decay with the release of 5.52 MeV of energy. The combined mass of the parent and daughter nuclei is 452 u. What was the parent nucleus?
- Calculate the chemical atomic mass of silicon.
- Calculate (in MeV) the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 129I and for 129Xe.
- There exist subatomic particles whose spin is characterized by s = 1, rather than the s = ½ of electrons. These particles are said to have a spin of one.a. What is the magnitude (as a multiple of h)
- a. Draw a diagram similar to Figure 41.2 to show all the possible orientations of the angular momentum vector L̅ for the case l = 3. Label each L̅ with the appropriate value of m.b. What is the
- Draw a series of pictures, similar to Figure 41.21, for the ground states of Ca, Ni, As, and Kr.Figure 41.21:
- Draw a series of pictures, similar to Figure 41.21, for the ground states of K, Sc, Co, and Ge.Figure 41.21:
- Figure 41.22 shows that the ionization energy of cadmium (Z = 48) is larger than that of its neighbors. Why is this?Figure 41.22:
- Consider the three hydrogen-atom states 6p, 5d, and 4f. Which has the highest energy?
- a. Sketch graphs of the probability density |ψ(x)|2 for the four states in the finite potential well of Figure 40.14a. Stack them vertically, similar to the Figure 40.14a graphs of ψ(x).b. What is
- a. Sketch graphs of the probability density |ψ(x)|2|ψ(x)|2 for the four states in the finite potential well of Figure 40.14a. Stack them vertically, similar to the Figure 40.14a graphs of
- Consider the electron wave function where
- FIGURE P39.34 shows the wave function of a particle confined between x = -4.0 mm and x = 4.0 mm. The wave function is zero outside this region.a. Determine the value of the constant c, as defined in
- FIGURE EX39.12 shows the probability density for an electron that has passed through an experimental apparatus. If 1.0 ⨯ 106 electrons are used, what is the expected number that will land in a
- What are the units of ψ? Explain.
- Compton scattering is relevant not only to x-ray photons but, even more so, to higher energy gamma-ray photons. Suppose a 350 keV gamma-ray photon backscatters (i.e., is scattered back toward the
- a. For an RC circuit, find an expression for the angular frequency at which VC = ½ ɛ0.b. What is VR at this frequency?
- For the circuit shown in FIGURE P28.62, find the current through and the potential difference across each resistor. Place your results in a table for ease of reading.FIGURE P28.62:
- For the circuit shown in FIGURE P28.60, find the current through and the potential difference across each resistor. Place your results in a table for ease of reading.FIGURE P28.60:
- For the circuit shown in FIGURE P28.60, find the current through and the potential difference across each resistor. Place your results in a table for ease of reading.FIGURE P28.60:
- For the circuit shown in FIGURE P28.58, find the current through and the potential difference across each resistor. Place our results in a table for ease of reading.FIGURE P28.58:
- A circuit you’re building needs an ammeter that goes from 0 mA to a full-scale reading of 50 mA. Unfortunately, the only ammeter in the storeroom goes from 0 μA to a full-scale reading of only 500
- A battery is a voltage source, always providing the same potential difference regardless of the current. It is possible to make a current source that always provides the same current regardless of
- What are the battery current Ibat and the potential difference Va - Vb between points a and b when the switch in FIGURE P28.55 is (a) open and (b) closed?FIGURE P28.55:
- What are the emf and internal resistance of the battery in FIGURE P28.46?FIGURE P28.46:
- In FIGURE EX28.30, what is the value of the potential at points a and b?FIGURE EX28.30:
- The 10 Ω resistor in FIGURE EX28.29 is dissipating 40 W of power. How much power are the other two resistors dissipating?FIGURE EX28.29:
- What is the equivalent resistance between points a and b in FIGURE EX28.28?FIGURE EX28.28:
- What is the equivalent resistance between points a and b in FIGURE EX28.27?FIGURE EX28.27:
- What is the equivalent resistance between points a and b in FIGURE EX28.26?FIGURE EX28.26:
- A variable resistor R is connected across the terminals of a battery. FIGURE EX28.21 shows the current in the circuit as R is varied. What are the emf and internal resistance of the battery?FIGURE
- A 60 W lightbulb and a 100 W lightbulb are placed in the circuit shown in FIGURE EX28.9. Both bulbs are glowing.a. Which bulb is brighter? Or are they equally bright?b. Calculate the power dissipated
- In FIGURE EX28.3, what is the magnitude of the current in the wire to the right of the junction? Does the charge in this wire flow to the right or to the left?FIGURE EX28.3:
- You are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s).b. Finish the solution of the problem.
- You are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s).b. Finish the solution of the problem.
- You are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s).b. Finish the solution of the problem.
- High-frequency signals are often transmitted along a coaxial cable, such as the one shown in FIGURE P26.66. For example, the cable TV hookup coming into your home is a coaxial cable. The signal is
- Show that 1 V/m = 1 N/C.
- Find the electric field inside and outside a hollow plastic ball of radius R that has charge Q uniformly distributed on its outer surface.
- Figure 24.32b showed a conducting box inside a parallel-plate capacitor. The electric field inside the box is E̅ = 0̅. Suppose the surface charge on the exterior of the box could be frozen. Draw a
- The earth has a vertical electric field at the surface, pointing down, that averages 100 N/C. This field is maintained by various atmospheric processes, including lightning. What is the excess charge
- FIGURE P24.38 shows a solid metal sphere at the center of a hollow metal sphere. What is the total charge on (a) the exterior of the inner sphere, (b) the inside surface of the hollow sphere, and (c)
- A 20-cm-radius ball is uniformly charged to 80 nC.a. What is the ball’s volume charge density (C/m3)?b. How much charge is enclosed by spheres of radii 5, 10, and 20 cm?c. What is the electric
- Find the electric fluxes Φ1 to Φ5 through surfaces 1 to 5 in FIGURE P24.29.FIGURE P24.29:
- A 2.0 cm × 3.0 cm rectangle lies in the xy-plane. What is the magnitude of the electric flux through the rectangle ifa. E̅ = (100î - 200k̂) N/C?b. E̅ = (100î - 200 ĵ) N/C?
- What is the electric flux through the surface shown in FIGURE EX24.10?FIGURE EX24.10:
- What is the electric flux through the surface shown in FIGURE EX24.9?FIGURE EX24.9:
- Derive Equation 23.11 for the field E̅dipole in the plane that bisects an electric dipole.Equation 23.11:
- Charge q2 in FIGURE P22.49 is in equilibrium. What is q1?FIGURE P22.49:
- A sheet of glass is coated with a 500-nm-thick layer of oil (n = 1.42).a. For what visible wavelengths of light do the reflected waves interfere constructively?b. For what visible wavelengths of
- Two loudspeakers emit sound waves of the same frequency along the x-axis. The amplitude of each wave is a. The sound intensity is minimum when speaker 2 is 10 cm behind speaker 1. The intensity
- A rope of mass m and length L hangs from a ceiling.a. Show that the wave speed on the rope a distance y above the lower end is v = √gy.b. Show that the time for a pulse to travel the length of the
- An oscillator with a mass of 500 g and a period of 0.50 s has an amplitude that decreases by 2.0% during each complete oscillation. If the initial amplitude is 10 cm, what will be the amplitude after
- The 15 g head of a bobble-head doll oscillates in SHM at a frequency of 4.0 Hz.a. What is the spring constant of the spring on which the head is mounted?b. The amplitude of the head’s oscillations
- FIGURE P15.62 is a top view of an object of mass m connected between two stretched rubber bands of length L. The object rests on a frictionless surface. At equilibrium, the tension in each rubber
- A 0.300 kg oscillator has a speed of 95.4 cm/s when its displacement is 3.00 cm and 71.4 cm/s when its displacement is 6.00 cm. What is the oscillator’s maximum speed?
- Equation 15.25 states that ½ kA2 = ½ m(vmax)2. What does this mean? Write a couple of sentences explaining how to interpret this equation.Equation 15.25:
- Equation 15.25 states that ½ kA2 = ½ m(vmax)2. What does this mean? Write a couple of sentences explaining how to interpret this equation.
- A plastic “boat” with a 25 cm2 square cross section floats in a liquid. One by one, you place 50 g masses inside the boat and measure how far the boat extends below the surface. Your data are as
- A spring with spring constant 35 N/m is attached to the ceiling, and a 5.0-cm-diameter, 1.0 kg metal cylinder is attached to its lower end. The cylinder is held so that the spring is neither
- In Problems 64 through 66 you are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s).b. Draw a
- In Problems 64 through 66 you are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s).b. Draw a
- In Problems 64 through 66 you are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s).b. Draw a
- A proposed space elevator would consist of a cable stretching from the earth’s surface to a satellite, orbiting far in space, that would keep the cable taut. A motorized climber could slowly carry
- A space station orbits the sun at the same distance as the earth but on the opposite side of the sun. A small probe is fired away from the station. What minimum speed does the probe need to escape
- Luc, who is 1.80 m tall and weighs 950 N, is standing at the center of a playground merry-go-round with his arms extended, holding a 4.0 kg dumbbell in each hand. The merry-go-round can be modeled as
- Justin, with a mass of 30 kg, is going down an 8.0-m-high water slide. He starts at rest, and his speed at the bottom is 11 m/s. How much thermal energy is created by friction during his descent?
- The driver of a car traveling at 60 mph slams on the brakes, and the car skids to a halt. What happened to the kinetic energy the car had just before stopping?
- In Problems 64 and 65 you are given the equation used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are to(1500 kg)(9.8 m/s2) - 11,760 N = (1500 kg) v2/(200 m)a. Write a realistic problem for which this
- In Problems 64 and 65 you are given the equation used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are to60 N = (0.30 kg)ω2(0.50 m)a. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation.
- FIGURE EX7.16 shows two 1.0 kg blocks connected by a rope. A second rope hangs beneath the lower block. Both ropes have a mass of 250 g. The entire assembly is accelerated upward at 3.0 m/s2 by force
- The sled dog in FIGURE EX7.14 drags sleds A and B across the snow. The coefficient of friction between the sleds and the snow is 0.10. If the tension in rope 1 is 150 N, what is the tension in rope
- A steel cable lying flat on the floor drags a 20 kg block across a horizontal, frictionless floor. A 100 N force applied to the cable causes the block to reach a speed of 4.0 m/s in a distance of 2.0
- The foot of a 55 kg sprinter is on the ground for 0.25 s while her body accelerates from rest to 2.0 m/s.a. Is the friction between her foot and the ground static friction or kinetic friction?b. What
- A 3000 kg meteorite falls toward the earth. What is the magnitude of the earth’s acceleration just before impact? The earth’s mass is 5.98 × 1024 kg.
- A 1000 kg car pushes a 2000 kg truck that has a dead battery. When the driver steps on the accelerator, the drive wheels of the car push against the ground with a force of 4500 N. Rolling friction
- Block B in FIGURE EX7.7 rests on a surface for which the static and kinetic coefficients of friction are 0.60 and 0.40, respectively. The ropes are massless. What is the maximum mass of block A for
- For Exercises 1 through 5:a. Draw an interaction diagram.b. Identify the “system” on your interaction diagram.c. Draw a free-body diagram for each object in the system. Use dashed lines to
- For Exercises 1 through 5:a. Draw an interaction diagram.b. Identify the “system” on your interaction diagram.c. Draw a free-body diagram for each object in the system. Use dashed lines to
- For Exercises 1 through 5:a. Draw an interaction diagram.b. Identify the “system” on your interaction diagram.c. Draw a free-body diagram for each object in the system. Use dashed lines to
- A very smart 3-year-old child is given a wagon for her birthday. She refuses to use it. “After all,” she says, “Newton’s third law says that no matter how hard I pull, the wagon will exert an
- How does a sprinter sprint? What is the forward force on a sprinter as she accelerates? Where does that force come from? Your explanation should include an interaction diagram and a free-body diagram.
- An object moving in a liquid experiences a linear drag force: F̅drag = (bv, direction opposite the motion), where b is a constant called the drag coefficient. For a sphere of radius R, the drag
- An object moving in a liquid experiences a linear drag force: F̅drag = (bv, direction opposite the motion), where b is a constant called the drag coefficient. For a sphere of radius R, the drag
- FIGURE CP6.75 shows an accelerometer, a device for measuring the horizontal acceleration of cars and airplanes. A ball is free to roll on a parabolic track described by the equation y = x2, where
- A spring-loaded toy gun exerts a variable force on a plastic ball as the spring expands. Consider a horizontal spring and a ball of mass m whose position when barely touching a fully expanded spring
- In Problems 70 through 72 you are given the dynamics equations that are used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which these are the correct equations.b.
- In Problems 70 through 72 you are given the dynamics equations that are used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which these are the correct equations.b.
- In Problems 70 through 72 you are given the dynamics equations that are used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are toa. Write a realistic problem for which these are the correct equations.b.
- A 60 kg skater is gliding across frictionless ice at 4.0 m/s. Air resistance is not negligible. You can model the skater as a 170-cm-tall, 6-cm-diameter cylinder. What is the skater’s speed 2.0 s

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