- A rocket’s payload (everything EXCEPT fuel) has a mass of 10,000 kg and CV = 2.5 kJ/kg · K. Initially, the rocket is at rest at ground level, is at ambient temperature (T = 258C) and pressure (P 5
- Estimate the change in U when this compound boils at atmospheric pressure
- Using the experimental data from Example 11-4 for the di-isopropyl ether (1) + 1-propanol (2) system at 303.15 K, determine if the data set passes the direct test.
- Use the Lee-Kesler correlation to find the molar entropy residual for toluene at T = 651 K and P = 57.5 bar.
- Compound A is an industrial solvent and is widely enough used that extensive data on it is available. Compound B is a recently invented compound that can serve the same purpose as compound A, and we
- Methane enters a turbine at T = 600 K and P = 10 bar, and leaves at T = 400 K and P = 2 bar. Use the Peng-Robinson equation to determine the work produced for each mole of gas
- The critical point of water is Tc = 647.3 K and Pc = 221.2 bar. Determine the van der Waals parameters a and b for water, and also find the compressibility of water at its critical point (Zc ).
- Find the molar volume of n-pentane at T = 100°C and P = 1 bar. The Peng-Robinson parameters for n-pentane at this temperature are: a = 2.417 × 107 bar ? cm6/mol2 and b = 90.18 cm3/mol.
- liquid has constant coefficient of thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility, aV = 2.37 × 10-3 K-1 and kT = 3.54 × 10-5 bar-1. The molar volume of the compound at T = 300 K and P = 1 bar is
- A gas, which follows the EOS given above, enters a turbine at P = 15 bar and T = 500 K, and leaves with a pressure of P = 0.5 bar. If the turbine has an efficiency of 80%, findA. The work produced in
- Estimate the constant pressure heat capacityof steam at the various temperatures and pressures shown in Table 6-1, using only the data shown in the steam tables.
- A gas has CP = (7/2)R and is described by the van der Waals equation of state with a = 0 and b = 150 cm3/mol. The gas enters a steady-state throttling valve at P = 10 bar and T =30°C and leaves the
- This problem examines the Rankine heat engine introduced in Figure 5-5. Saturated steam at T = 250°C enters the turbine and the condenser operates at T = 40°C.A. Assuming the turbine is reversible,
- An ideal gas has CP* = (7/2)R. We are designing a steady-state process to compress the gas from an initial state of P = 1 bar and T = 300 K to a final state of P = 64 bar and T = 135 K. Find the work
- 100 kg/min of supercritical nitrogen at T = 135 K and P = 64 bar flows into a chamber, as illustrated in Figure 5-15. The sudden increase in diameter leads to a large pressure drop; the pressure in
- A turbine (Figure 5-7) has an efficiency of 80% and an outlet pressure of P = 0.5 bar. The inlet stream is at T = 300°C, and can be either a saturated steam or a superheated steam at either P = 3
- A Rankine heat engine is to be designed, with the following specifications and constraints:The boiler will operate at a maximum T = 200°C.The condenser will operate at a minimum T = 100°C.The
- Compare the results of Problems 4-9 and 4-10.A. Without the heat exchanger, the pair of turbines in Problem 4-10 would function identically to the turbine in Problem 4-9A. Comment on the effects the
- A Carnot heat engine operates continuously and reversibly at steady state, using the following cycle (illustrated in Figure 4-21):
- Recall the 500-liter adiabatic tank that was analyzed in Example 3-11. It was full of liquid initially at T = 300 K. Valves were opened, allowing 20 kg/min of liquid at T=400K to enter while 20
- Consider the turbine in part C of Example 4-1, in which steam entered at T = 550°C and P = 30 bar and exited at T = 200°C and P = 1 bar. A. How much entropy is generated for each kilogram of steam
- A gas at T = 450°C and P = 5 bar flows at steady state through an adiabatic and reversible nozzle. The exiting pressure is 1 bar. Find the velocity and temperature of the exiting stream ifA. The gas
- “Vessel A” contains 100 g of water initially at 80°C and “Vessel B” contains 50 g of water initially at 20°C. They are brought into contact as shown in Figure 4-6, and allowed to reach
- Two moles of an ideal gas are confined in a piston-cylinder device, initially at P = 5 bar and T = 300 K. The atmosphere is at P = 1 bar but there is a pile of sand on top of the piston, as shown in
- Two moles of an ideal gas are confined in a piston-cylinder device, initially at P = 5 bar and T = 300 K. The surroundings are also at T = 300 K. The atmosphere is at P=1 bar but clamps hold the
- Steam at 550°C and 30 bar enters a steady-state, adiabatic turbine (Figure 4 1). The exiting stream is at P = 1 bar. Find the work produced per kilogram of entering steam if the exit stream isA.
- 1000 mol/min of pure ethanol enters a steady-state boiler as liquid at P = 1 atm and T = 25°C, and leaves the boiler as vapor at P = 1 atm and T = 100°C as shown in Figure 3-16. The normal boiling
- A tank has a volume of 500 liters and is initially full of a liquid that is at 300 K, has a density of 0.8 kg/L, and a constant heat capacity of C V = 3 J/g · K. The tank can be modeled as perfectly
- An ideal gas has CP*=(7/2)R. One mole of this gas is confined in a piston-cylinder device. Initially, the gas is at T = 300 K and P = 1 bar (Figure 3-13). If the gas is compressed isothermally to P =
- The balloon portion of a dirigible contains 5000 moles of helium. Initially, the helium is at T = 15°C and P = 0.95 atm, and is 500 m off the ground (where the atmospheric pressure is also 0.95
- An adiabatic pump operates at steady state. Water enters as saturated liquid at P = 0.2 bar and is compressed to P = 10 bar Figure 3-10). What is the rate at which shaft work is added in the pump,
- A rigid storage tank has a total volume of 5.00 m3 and is sealed throughout the process. Initially, the storage tank contains 0.50 m3 of saturated liquid water at P = 5 bar, while the rest of the
- An underground reservoir 3 km below the surface contains geothermally heated steam at T = 250°C and P = 5 bar. A vertical shaft allows this steam to flow upward, through the shaft, and to the
- If steam flows through an adiabatic nozzle at steady state, entering the nozzle with a pressure of 5 bar and a temperature of 400°C and exiting at 1 bar and 350°C (Figure 3-6), what is its exiting
- An oak tree is 30 feet tall and 2 feet in diameter (Figure 3-5). How many pounds of CO2 and H2O were consumed to form the tree’s trunk? How many pounds of O2 gas were released? Assume the density
- Estimate the change in U when this compound melts at atmospheric pressure
- This problem is an expansion of Example 2-3. The table below lists 10 sets of conditions—five temperatures at a constant P, and five pressures at a constant T. For each T and P, find:• The
- Ammonia enters an adiabatic, steady-state compressor at P = 0.2 bar and T = 300 K and leaves at P = 1 bar (Figure 4-15). Ammonia can be assumed to act as an ideal gas at pressures up to 1 atm. The
- A solid sculpture (Figure 4-16) with M = 2 lbm and CP = 0.5 BTU/lbm · °R is heat-cured in an oven at 250°F and ambient pressure. It is removed from the oven, placed on a table, and allowed to cool
- This problem investigates a heat engine that operates as shown in Figure 4 18. Hot reservoir: TH= 800 K Cu = 1000 kJ/min Heat Engine W = ? Qc = ? Cold reservoir: Tc = 300 K FIGURE 4-18 Heat engine
- A gas is confined in a piston-cylinder arrangement. The gas undergoes a series of four reversible steps, detailed below, which together constitute the Carnot heat engine, or the Carnot cycle. The
- The contents of a refrigerator are at 5°C. The surroundings are at 20°C. Heat transfers through the walls to the inside of the refrigerator at a rate of 100 kJ/min. Consequently, the refrigeration
- A refrigerator operates on the vapor-compression cycle as follows (see Figure 5-13).∎ The boiler produces saturated vapor at T = 285 K and P = 0.2 bar.∎ The compressor has an efficiency of
- A refrigeration process is designed to operate at steady state, removing 1000 kJ/min of heat from a low-temperature reservoir at T = 41°F and expel the heat to a hightemperature reservoir at T =
- Five moles of gas are confined in a piston-cylinder device (Figure 6-5). At the beginning of the process, the gas has T = 300 K and V = 100 L. If the gas is compressed isothermally to a final volume
- The tank of a water heater (Figure 6-6) has V = 80 L and is initially sealed and full of water at T = 130°F and P = 1 atm. The water heater is designed to maintain the water at this temperature, but
- A gas flows through an adiabatic nozzle (Figure 6-7) at steady state, entering at P = 5 bar and T = 400°C, and leaving at P = 1 bar. Assuming the nozzle is reversible, what is the temperature of the
- One mole of gas is confined in a piston-cylinder apparatus (Figure 6-13) initially at T = 300 K and P = 10 bar. The gas is heated reversibly and at constant pressure to T = 500 K. What are the values
- A gas flows through an adiabatic nozzle at a steady state, entering at P = 5 bar and T = 400°C and leaving at P = 1 bar. Assuming the nozzle is reversible, what is the temperature of the exiting
- Using the compressed liquid tables, estimate the isothermal compressibility and coefficient of thermal expansion for liquid water at each of the following conditions.A. P = 100 bar and T = 100°CB. P
- 110 lbm of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is stored in a rigid, sealed 5 ft3 vessel. Due to a failure in the cooling/insulation system, the temperature increases to –100°F, which is above the
- The critical properties for compounds A and B, which are two compounds with similar molecular structures, are given here. No further information is available about compound B, but the vapor pressure
- Use Figure 7-13 to estimate the compressibility (Z) of supercritical toluene at T = 651 K and P = 57.5 bar. PV RT Z= N 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 Bo box 80 0 0.5 Noocki + O 0
- The chemical compound of interest is CH3–CHCl–CH2–CHCl–CH2–CH = CH2 Estimate the critical temperature and critical pressure of this compound using group additivity.
- Use the Z = f (T, P) virial equation to determine the compressibility (Z) of benzene in the vapor phase atA. T = 250°C and P = 4 barB. T = 250°C and P = 28 bar
- This problem examines the generalization mentioned in Section 7-3, that the Lee-Kesler generalized approach should not be applied to highly polar compounds.A. Choose three temperatures and three
- For liquid water at T = 50°C, the vapor pressure is Psat = 0.124 bar, and ΔHvap = 42.91 kJ/mol.A. Using only the given information, estimate the vapor pressures of water at T = 55°C, T = 60°C, T
- You have 1 L of acetone and would like to make a 50% by mass mixture of acetone (1) and n-heptane (2). What volume of n heptane would you have to add to accomplish this? What is the final volume of
- You mix 80 grams of methanol (1) with 20 grams of cyclohexane (2) at 295 K. Is the resulting system stable? If not, what is the composition (in mass fraction) and amount (in grams) of the resulting
- You mix 60 grams of methanol (1) with 40 grams of cyclohexane (2) at 295 K. Is the resulting system stable? If not, what is the composition (in mass fraction) and amount (in grams) of the resulting
- A boiler operates at steady state. The entering water is saturated liquid at P = 5 bar and has a flow rate of 10,000 kg/hr. The exiting steam is also at P = 5 bar and has T = 400°C. The pipe
- We are designing a new process that uses natural gas, which will be delivered via pipeline at conditions of P = 1000 psia and T = 100°F. In order to size process equipment, we need to know the
- Biosphere II is an experimental structure that was designed to be an isolated ecological space, intended for conducting experiments on managed, self-contained ecosystems. Biosphere II (so named
- A vessel initially contains 5.0 m3 of superheated steam at T = 300°C and P = 1 bar. The vessel is sealed but is equipped with a piston-cylinder arrangement so that the volume can be changed (Figure
- A 4-L sink is initially half-full of water. The faucet is turned on, and 1 kg/min of water begins pouring into the sink. At the same moment that the faucet is turned on, the drain is opened, and 10
- An ideal gas with a constant CP* = (7/2)R enters a steady-state throttling valve at P = 10 bar and T = 30°C. If it leaves the valve at P = 1 bar, what is the exiting temperature? P = 10 bar T =
- Ammonia vapor enters an adiabatic, steady-state throttling valve at T = 30°C and P = 10 bar, illustrated in Figure 6-1. If it leaves the throttling valve at P = 1 bar, what is the exiting
- Most (though not all) of the people who climb Mt. Everest do so with the aid of oxygen masks and tanks. This is because the barometric pressure at the peak of Mt. Everest is about one third that at
- For H2O, the following parameters have been proposed for the van der Waals equation of state: a = 0.5542 Pa · m6/mol2 and b = 3.051 × 10-5 m3/mol. Find the specific volume of water at the same
- Convert 10,000 ft-lbf of energy into BTU, Joules, and kilojoules.
- The ideal gas heat capacity of nitrogen varies with temperature; it is C*p= 29.42-A. How much internal energy (per mole) must be added to nitrogen to increase its temperature from 450 K to 500 K at
- Read the following paragraph. A plane was scheduled to fly a round trip from an airport to a rural landing strip. The mass of the plane, when empty, was 100,000 lbs. It was loaded with 10,000
- Using the ideal gas law, estimate the specific volume of steam (in L/kg) at each of the following temperatures and pressures, and compare to the specific volume in the steam tables.A. T = 100°C, P =
- liquid has C^V of 2.15 J/g · K. What is the change in specific internal energy when this liquid is heated from 295 to 300 K? Û₂ - Û₁ = ? T₁ = 295 K FIGURE 2-11 Schematic of process examined
- Five kilograms of water is contained in a rigid, 3 m3 vessel at P = 1 bar.A. What is the temperature and physical state (liquid, vapor, or both liquid and vapor) of the water?B. What is the specific
- The Reaumur temperature scale, while now obscure, was once in common use in some parts of the world. The normal freezing point of water is defined as 0 degrees Reaumur and the normal boiling point of
- A filtration system continuously removes water from a swimming pool, passes the water through filters, and then returns it to the pool. Both pipes are located near the surface of the water. The flow
- An airplane is 20,000 feet above the ground when a 100 kg object is dropped from it. If there were no such thing as air resistance, what would the vertical velocity and kinetic energy of the dropped
- A. An object is dropped from a height of 20 feet off the ground. What is its velocity when it hits the ground?B. Instead of being dropped, the object is thrown down, such that when it is 20 feet off
- 100 kg of steam is enclosed in a piston-cylinder device, initially at 300°C and 5 bar. It expands and cools to 200°C and 1 bar.A. What is the change in internal energy of the steam in this
- A box has a mass of 20 kg, and a building has a height of 15 meters.A. Find the force of gravity acting on the box.B. Find the work required to lift the box from the ground to the roof of the
- Solar panels are installed on a rectangular flat roof. The roof is 15 feet by 30 feet, and the mass of the panels and framing is 900 lbm.A. Assuming the weight of the panels is evenly distributed
- Using the 1-parameter Margules equation model obtained for LLE for the methanol (1) + cyclohexane (2) system at 300 K from Example 13-5, estimate the LLE curve as a function of temperature.Example
- Consider the methanol (1) + cyclohexane (2) system as depicted in Figure 13-1. Use the data at 300 K to determine the model parameter for the 1-parameter Margules equation.Figure 13-1. Temperature
- Consider the 1-butanol (1) + water (2) system. The parameters for this liquid mixture at 60°C using the 2-parameter Margules equation are A12 = 2.7576 and A21 = 1.3064 (Gmehling and Onken, 1977).
- Can the following excess molar Gibbs free energy models predict a liquid–liquid phase split? A. Ideal solution B. 1-Parameter Margules equation
- One hundred moles per minute of an equimolar mixture of methyl ethyl ketone (1) and toluene (2) are flashed from 760 mm Hg to 460 mm Hg at 75°C. You know, experimentally, that the infinite dilution
- A single vapor–liquid equilibrium point for the water (1) + ethanol (2) system is experimentally measured at 30°C. The experiment provides the following information: x1 = 0.30, y1 5 0.23, and P
- One strategy to lower the concentration of certain substances in gas mixtures is to put the gas in contact with a liquid, since the gases will be absorbed in different amounts depending on the type
- As an undergraduate chemical engineering student, you are involved in a summer research project that requires you to measure the molar volume of a methanol (1) + water (2) binary system at 298.15
- A car weighs 3000 lbm and is travelling 60 mph when it has to make an emergency stop. The car comes to a stop 5 seconds after the brakes are applied.A. Assuming the rate of deceleration is constant,
- Suppose that the liquid molar enthalpy for a binary mixture of benzene (1) and cyclohexane (2) has been fit to the following functional form at 25°C and 1 bar (Abello, 1973).Thus,where H [=]
- In a mixing unit at your plant, you mix 40 moles/min of an equimolar mixture of benzene (1) + 2-propanol (2) at 298.15 K with 80 moles/min of pure benzene at 298.15 K. If you desire to keep the
- In a process at your plant, you are mixing two liquids: benzene (1) and 2-propanol (2). You would like to create a molar enthalpy vs. composition diagram for this mixture and have found molar
- This problem concerns the gas studied in problem 6-18, which is known to follow the EOS:V = RT/P + aP2 where a = 0.01 L/bar2mol.A. Find a general equation for the fugacity of this compound as a
- The vapor pressure of water at T = 25°C is Psat = 0.0317 bar, and the molar volume of saturated liquid at this temperature is V = 18.054 cm3/mol. Using only this information, estimate the fugacity
- The boiler of a refrigerator is designed to operate at T = 15°F. Assuming Freon® 22 in the liquid and vapor phases can be described by the van der Waals equation with the parameters a = 40,100
- In specifying the molar Gibbs free energy of a compound, the liquid phase at T = 300 K and P = 1 bar is being used as the reference state. Therefore GL = 0 at T = 300 K and P = 1 bar. It has been
- You are designing a process in which toluene is used as a solvent. As part of your safety analysis, you need to ensure that toluene will not boil at process conditions. Use the Antoine equation to
- At T = 179.88°C, the vapor pressure of water is P = 10 bar. At these conditions,A. Using only this information, estimate the vapor pressure of water at 200°C, 250°C, and 300°C.B. Compare the