- If standard deviation is held constant, how does the size of the sample affect the size of the standard error of the mean?
- A measure of variability in IQ scores for students in law schoolSelect the appropriate statistical technique from among the options in the following figure. Selecting the correct descriptive
- A medical school dean wondered whether students who did better in her medical school became better physicians. To test this, she gathered a sample of medical students in their final year and
- A sample of students at a college were asked to classify themselves as(1) Asian;(2) Black;(3) Hispanic;(4) Native American;(5) White; or(6) other.Each person was also asked whether his or her family
- Graduates of a particular college were classified as having(a) Liberal arts degrees or(b) Professional degrees. They were also classified as (1) planning to pursue graduate education or (2) not going
- A health-care researcher has obtained a sample of respondents from throughout the United States and has asked each one to indicate how worried he or she is about the avian flu on an interval-level
- A high school principal claimed that academic talent was evenly distributed among the social strata at his high school. To test this, he classified the students as jocks, cheerleaders, techies,
- A summer camp director wanted to find out if campers’ degree of homesickness changed over time. She took a sample of them at her camp and at three points in time—the beginning, middle, and end of
- A neonatolgist is curious to find out what the long-term effect of premature birth is on mental development. He goes to a large school district, assembles a sample of sixth graders, and determines
- Some people like cats and some like dogs. Cats are generally thought of as more independent and aloof. A personality psychologist wondered if a relationship existed between the personality trait of
- A member of a bicycle club wondered if a relationship existed between how expensive a person€™s bicycle was and how fast that person rode. He found riders with bikes in two categories. One
- An anti-doping agency decided to investigate if an athlete€™s eliteness was related to the likelihood of doping. It unexpectedly drug-tested the top 10 finishers in all the track and field
- The dentist from Exercises 16.36 and 16.37 has a new question. He wondered if people get most of their cavities when they are young or if they occur consistently over time. To investigate this, he
- A textbook publisher calculated the percentage of deadlines met by each of its authors. It then classified the authors as having made money for the company, broken even, or lost money for the
- The same dentist wanted to find out if his practice was unusual in terms of how many cavities his patients had. He learned that the average American has 11.23 decayed, filled, or missing permanent
- A dentist wanted to examine if milk consumption as a child had an impact on the need for dentures by age 50. He classified his patients as having consumed a lot of milk as a child (yes vs. no) and as
- An ecologist obtained a random sample of 85 small rural towns and a random sample of 72 small suburban towns. For each town, he calculated pounds of trash per resident per year that went to the
- Students often gain a few pounds when they move away to college and start eating institutional food. A nutritionist weighed first-year students at the start of the semester, right before
- In some educational programs, there are a lot of options. One nursing program, for example, allows its students to decide between(a) Traditional, semester-long courses,(b) Online courses,(c)
- A demographer was curious if an age difference existed between men and women who were getting married for the first time. From wedding announcements in local papers throughout the United States, he
- Select the appropriate statistical technique from among those in Figure 16.6.10% of the U.S. population is left-handed. Several recent presidents (Barack Obama, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush) have
- The average salary for the first-year teachers in Exercise 16.16Select the appropriate statistical technique from among the options in the following figure.Data from exercise 16.16Determine if the
- A graph showing the number of high-, medium-, and low-volume producers from the real estate company in Exercise 16.18Select the appropriate statistical technique from among the options in the
- The most common marital status among 50-year-old men living in Rhode IslandSelect the appropriate statistical technique from among the options in the following figure. Selecting the correct
- Number of lightbulbs in a house(a) Whether the variable is measured at the nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level, and(b) Whether it is continuous or discrete.
- Heights of randomly selected pieces of land as measured by meters above or below sea level(a) Whether the variable is measured at the nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level, and(b) Whether it is
- Level of anxiety before a test, as measured 0–4 on a scale marked 0 = none, 1 = slight, 2 = moderate, 3 = considerable, and 4 = extreme(a) Whether the variable is measured at the nominal, ordinal,
- Marital status(a) Whether the variable is measured at the nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level, and(b) Whether it is continuous or discrete.
- Whether anything unlucky or not happened, as measured in Exercise 16.20Determine(a) Whether the variable is measured at the nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level, and(b) Whether it is continuous
- Ounces of milk, as measured in Exercise 16.19Determine(a) Whether the variable is measured at the nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level, and(b) Whether it is continuous or discrete.Data from
- A researcher on superstition decided to investigate if walking under a ladder really brought about bad luck. He took 100 people to his laboratory, one at a time. As each person entered, he flipped a
- A milk-processing plant had strict standards regarding how much milk went into each container. A quart container, for example, was supposed to contain no less than 31.5 ounces and no more than 32.5
- A real estate company wondered why some of its agents were more successful than others. They classified their agents as high-volume producers, medium-volume producers, and low-volume producers. All
- A cognitive psychologist wondered if the type of computer one used affected how one thought. She put together a sample of kids, randomly divided them into two groups, and gave Apple Macs to one group
- An economist wondered if job satisfaction was associated with salary. She obtained a sample of first-year teachers from all around the country and found each one’s salary, adjusted for the local
- A clinical psychologist obtained a large sample of adults. Each adult kept track of all the food and beverages he or she consumed for a week. From this, the psychologist calculated the average grams
- A developmental psychologist has a teacher rate the boys in his class in terms of how helpful they are. He then classifies the boys as to whether they were ever Boy Scouts or not and compares the
- Determine if the study is descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, or correlational.A restaurant chain surveys its customers to learn demographic characteristics such as age in years, marital
- Two variables are measured on each case in one sample of cases. This sounds like a ____ test is being planned.
- Level of measurement is / is not important in deciding what difference test to do.
- This book covered no measures of variability for ____ or ____ variables.
- The ____ of the distribution of the data, as well as the variable’s ____, determines what measure of central tendency should be chosen.
- In order to choose the correct ____ to display a variable’s frequency, it matters if the variable is discrete or continuous.
- Scores are transformed in order to put them into ____.
- The two characteristics of a data set most commonly described are ____ and ____.
- The ____ is thought of as the causal agent.
- If cases are divided into groups, the researcher is probably conducting a ____ test.
- Relationship tests are used to see if ____ vary together systematically.
- To determine if one group differs from another, the type of test to use is a ____ test.
- Descriptive statistics ____ a set of observations.
- The very last question in this book is a challenging one. It is rare that a researcher does a study that involves just one statistical analysis. Usually, there are multiple dependent variables and a
- State the null and alternative hypotheses for Exercise 15.43.Data from exercise 15.43A sociologist planned to study patterns of criminality in small towns. She drew a random sample of 50 small towns
- State the null and alternative hypotheses for Exercise 15.44.Data from exercise 15.44An addictions researcher wants to see if male and female alcoholics differ in the type of alcohol they consume.
- There should be at least ____ cases in each cell in a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.
- If fObserved = fExpected for every cell, what does that mean for the chi-square value and for the null hypothesis?
- Is it possible, for the contingency table below, where N = 24, for fObservedto equal fExpectedfor each cell? N=24
- Complete the following contingency table. If it can€™t be done, explain why. 18 36 42 46 50
- Complete the following contingency table. If it can€™t be done, explain why. 24 17 3 2 10 18 18 15
- Complete the following contingency table. If it can€™t be done, explain why. 12 20 26 24
- A political scientist developed a theory that after an election, supporters of the losing candidate removed the bumper stickers from their cars faster than did supporters of the winning candidate.
- A surgeon decided to compare sutures and staples in closing incisions. When he finished operating on a patient, he flipped a coin in order to determine if he would use sutures or staples to close the
- A college dean noticed that political science seemed to attract more male majors than psychology. She wondered if her observation were true. So, she obtained a random sample from each major and
- Tennis players are more likely to win points when they are serving. A tennis journalist wondered whether the server€™s advantage diminished as a rally lasted longer. She randomly selected
- Given χ2(1, N = 102) = 3.53, p > .05 where R = 1 and C = 1,(a) Calculate V;(b) Classify the effect as small, medium, or large; and(c) Determine if the researcher should worry about Type II error.
- Given χ2(3, N = 78) = 8.92, p < .05 where R = 4 and C = 2,(a) Calculate V;(b) Classify the effect as small, medium, or large; and(c) Determine if the researcher should worry about Type II error.
- The chi-square yielded statistically significant results. Given the information below, determine the direction of the difference: Observed Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B Group I 12 19 Group II 17 9.
- The chi-square yielded statistically significant results. Given the information below, determine the direction of the difference: Observed Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B 18 Group I Group II 10 30
- Given χ2(1, N = 88) = 3.45, p > .05, which type of error does the researcher need to worry about?
- Given χ2(1, N = 45) = 4.92, p < .05, which type of error does the researcher need to worry about?
- Given the information below, calculate chi-square: Observed Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B Group I Group II 18 10
- Given the information below, calculate Ï‡2: Observed Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B Group I Group II 14 21 18 18
- Given the information below, calculate Ï‡2: Observed Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B Group I 35 55 Group II 40 67 Expected Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B Group I Group II 46.60 43.40 55.40
- Given the information below, calculate Ï‡2: Observed Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B 28 Group I Group II 12 12 12 Expected Frequencies Outcome A Outcome B 25.00 Group I Group II 15.00
- Given N = 123 and the information in the following contingency table, calculate the expected frequencies for the cells:Calculating expected frequencies. Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Group I Group II Group II
- Given N = 74 and the information in the following contingency table, calculate the expected frequencies for the cells:Calculating expected frequencies. Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Group I Group II B 48% A
- Given the contingency table below, find the row and column percentages:Calculating row and column percentages for a chisquare test of independence. Outcome A Outcome B 28 Group I Group II 12 32 18
- Given the contingency table below, find the row and column percentages:Calculating row and column percentages for a chisquare test of independence. Outcome A Outcome B 34 Group I Group II 86 113 113
- An experimental group and a control group were compared in terms of whether they recovered from an illness in 5 or fewer days, 6 to 10 days, or more than 10 days. Make a labeled contingency table
- A researcher compared people in their 20s, 40s, and 60s in terms of whether they supported gay marriage or not. Support was measured as a “yes” or “no.” Create a labeled contingency table
- Completing all six steps of hypothesis testing for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.Dr. Constantinople, a cancer physician, wondered whether wearing a hat protected one against skin cancer. From
- Completing all six steps of hypothesis testing for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.A consumer psychologist, Dr. Wessells, obtained a random sample of 880 people who had strong preferences as to
- According to the U.S. government, 68% of American adults weigh more than they should. A dietician, Dr. Christiansen, maintained a theory that drinking 8 or more glasses of water a day was associated
- Dr. Lowry investigated whether fortunetellers have extrasensory perception. He obtained a random sample of 124 fortunetellers. For each one, a card was randomly selected from a wellshuffled 52-card
- Given the information below, determine the direction of the results:Determining the direction of the difference for a statistically significant chi-square goodness-of-fit test. Category I 37 Category
- Given the information below, determine the direction of the results:Determining the direction of the difference for a statistically significant chi-square goodness-of-fit test. Category I Category I|
- Using APA format with α = .05.If df = 5, N = 234, and χ2 = 3.85, write the results in APA format.
- Using APA format with α = .05.If df = 4, N = 55, and χ2 = 9.49, write the results in APA format.
- Using APA format with α = .05.If df = 3, N = 78, χ2 = 5.99, and χ2cv = 7.815, write the results in APA format.
- Using APA format with α = .05.If df = 1, N = 43, χ2 = 4.81, and χ2cv = 3.841, write the results in APA format.
- Calculating Ï‡2for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.Given the information in the following matrix, calculate Ï‡2: f. 37 22 observed 58% %Expected 42%
- Calculating Ï‡2for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.Given the information in the following matrix, calculate Ï‡2: 40 f. 50 observed %Expected Expected 35% 65%
- Calculating Ï‡2for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.Given the information in the following matrix, calculate Ï‡2: f. Σ71 28 23 20 'observed spected 33.37 Expected f. 19.98 17.65
- Calculating Ï‡2for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.Given the information in the following matrix, calculate Ï‡2: Σ-41 18 fobserve 14 observed 6.97 15.58 18.45 E=41.00 Expected
- Calculating expected frequencies for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.Given N = 97 and the expected percentages below, find the expected frequencies:A 63% ...................... B 37%
- Given N = 182 and the expected percentages below, find the expected frequencies: C 48% A 14% B 38%
- Finding χ2cv and setting the decision rule. Use α = .05.(a) If df = 4, what is χ2cv?(b) What is the decision rule?
- Finding χ2cv and setting the decision rule. Use α = .05.(a) If df = 2, what is χ2cv?(b) What is the decision rule?
- Given this matrix, how many degrees of freedom are there for this chi-square test of independence?
- Given this matrix, how many degrees of freedom are there for this chi-square test of independence?
- Given this matrix, how many degrees of freedom are there for this chi-square goodness of- fit test?

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